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Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF LABOR. 

Rooms 250-258, State House, Boston. 



CHAS. F. PIDGIN, CHIEF. 



Frank H. Drown, first clerk. 



Wm. G. Grundy, second clerk. 






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MASSACHUSETTS- BUEEAU OF STATISTICS OF LABOR. 



THE 



Apprenticeship System. 



Part I op the Axj^ual Report for 1906. 
Pages 1 to 86, 



CHAR F. PIDGESr, Chief, 

FRANK H. BROWN, First Clkrk, WM. G, GHUKDT, Sbgond Cl&Hk. 




BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER TRINTING CO., STATE TRINTERS, 

18 Post OmcK Square. 

1906. 



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CONTENTS. 



THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 

Pag« 

Introduction, 3-6 

Questions asked employers and trade union officials, ... 6 

Number of replies received classified by indu9tries, .... 6-11 

Law of apprentices, . , : 11-13 

Regulation of apprentices, 13-20 

Building trades, 13-16 

Clothing trades, 16 

Printing trades, 16, 16 

Metal trades, 17 

Railway employees, 17, 18 

Textile trades, 18 

Along shore and seamen, 18 

Miscellaneous trades, 18-20 

Sample apprenticeship agreements, 21-36 

Opinions of the employer and the union on restriction of apprentices, 36-61 

Trade schools 62-86 

North End Union Trade School, Boston, 62-64 

Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic; Association Trade School, 

Boston, 65-67 

Boston Asylum and Farm School, Boston, 67, 68 

North Bennet Street Industrial School, Boston, .... 68 

Trade School for Girls, Boston 68-71 

Women's Educational and Industrial Union, Boston, . . 71, 72 

Evening School of Trades, Springfield, ^ . . . . 72-74 

Bradford Durfee Textile School, Fall River, . 76, 76 

Lowell Textile School, Lowell, 76-81 

New Bedford Textile School, New Bedford, .... 81-84 

Waltham Horological School, Waltham, 84, 85 



Appbovbd by thb Statb Boabd op Publication. 



1 



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THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 



From the introduction of the first labor-saving machine dates y 
the decline of the apprentice. After the introduction of a 
machine comes the demand for men trained in the use of that 
particular machine, and in proportion to its first cost it is ex- 
pected to replace the capital originally expended upon it, with 
at least ordinary profits, before it is worn out and thrown on 
the scrap heap. The same is true in regard to man. A man 
educated at much labor, time, and expense in any of the various 
skilled employments is expected to obtain higher wages than 
those which are paid to the common laborer. Thus, in a measure, 
will be returned to him the expense of his education with at least 
ordinary profits on that which forms his capital, and he is ex- 
pected to do this within a reasonable time, regard, of course, 
being had for the uncertainty of life in the same manner as it 
is had for the durability of the machine. 

In former times, especially in Europe, the laws and customs 
required that any person desiring to exercise certain branches 
of skilled labor must serve an apprenticeship. During the 
continuance of the apprenticeship the whole labor belonged to 
the master, but as soon as the apprentice became a workman, 
and received the wages of a trained journeyman, he was expected 
to reimburse himself for the years spent in learning his trade. 

Up to the present day the need of apprentices has not been 
felt to^any apparent extent, but now on all sides is heard the 
statement that skilled labor is difficult to obtain, and the intro- 
duction of laws and resolutions in State legislatures looking 
toward a technical or trade education for the young persons 
who are growing up in our midst indicates a desire to return to 
old conditions, varied according to the differences in trade life 
as it is to-day. 

[3] 

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^ 



4 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

A recent lecture delivered before the Technical Club in 
Frankfort, Germany, by Director Back of the Frankfort In- 
dustrial School, was suggestive and of practical value. Mr. 
Back was one of the commissiotiers sent by the German Gov- 
ernment to visit the St. Louis Exposition and to gather 
material for a report concerning industrial conditions in the 
United States. According to Director Back the subject of 
training industrial and technical apprentices does not receive 
in the United States the same general and widespread attention 
as in Germany. The following is a condensation of a portion 
of his address : 

In America a young man has much less opportunity than in Germany 
to learn in a practical way all the details of a trade, and thus to become a 
skilled workman in a thorough sense of the term. This is largely due to a 
difference of systems, the general tendency in the United States being to 
reduce prices by almost entirely substituting machinery for hand work, by 
using a limited number of designs, and by manufacturing in immense quan- 
tities. Consequently a workman usually becomes familiar with only one 
of the many details of manufacture, and seldom has an opportunity to follow 
an article through all the different processes required for its completion. 
Moreover, there is little occasion for hand work except in connection with 
repairs. 

Nevertheless, it is always necessary to have a few trained workmen to 
attend to the final adjustment of parts and to put the finishing touches to a 
completed product. The scarcity of such skilled workmen is now being 
complained of more and more in the United States. 

Most owners of small establishments which still employ hand workers, 
especially those in large cities, are unwilling to take the trouble and as- 
sume the responsibility of training apprentices. This training is done, if at 
all, principally in small towns or in the country. Consequently the United 
States is now unable to supply its own demand for skilled laborers, the best 
trained men being largely immigrants from Europe, and especially from 
Germany. 

As this scarcity is at last being recognized as a weak point in the in- 
dustrial development of the United States, efforts of various kinds are now 
being made to provide means for increasing the number of apprentices and 
for instructing them and other young men in a manner which will prove 
later on advantageous both to them and to the manufacturing interests of 
the country. A well-known firm in Philadelphia, for instance, now accepts 
three classes of apprentices, who are paid according to the quality of their 
preparatory education, and who, after they have been systematically and 
thoroughly trained, are given regular and profitable employment. There 
have been established also, especially in the Eastern States, a number of 
good industrial schools, where young people of both sexes are instructed in 
various kinds of useful hand work. 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 5 

Some of the States have provided excellent legislation relating to appren- 
tices, but this has heretofore been of little use, owing to general indifference 
on the subject and to the unwillingness of employers to train apprentices 
and develop them into skilled workmen Moreover, the Government itself 
has not set a good example in the matter to manufacturers, for in its own 
unusually well-arranged workshops no apprentices are employed.* 

It would certainly appear that the public has been a long 
time in discovering that the only good workman is the one 
who has learned his trade and learned it thoroughly ; that only 
the regularly trained artisan is the one to be relied upon ; and 
that few practical men of the present day will deny that there 
are advantages in apprenticeship. No one would perhaps ad- 
vocate the restoration of the old gilds with their exclusive 
privileges, but many would perhaps be inclined to advise the 
institution of some order or degree by which in certain trades 
a man who has passed through a regular apprenticeship might 
be distinguished from the man who is not so qualified. 

Mr. Edwin P. Seaver, former Superintendent of the Boston 
Public Schools, for many years has expressed an interest in 
the apprenticeship question through its bearing upon mechanic 
arts instruction in the public schools. As early as 1883 he 
began the advocacy of this kind of instruction extended so as 
to include trade schools, to be not merely a satisfactory sub- 
stitute for apprenticeship, but a much better thing than ap- 
prenticeship ever was. He said : 

What we have now in the way of mechanic arts instruction and trade 
school instruction is only a beginning. It would seem to be for the highest 
interests of the State that all young people be educated in such a way as to 
become self-supporting, and if those who would like to become self-support- 
ing by learning a trade are excluded from the private shops, the State 
would do well to give them the opportunity to learn a trade in public 
schools or shops. 

Mr. Seaver further expressed himself to the effect that 
<* The best thing a trade union can do to promote the public 
interest would be for it to insist that all apprentices taught in 
private shops should be well taught, that private shops should 
be as wide open as possible to receive apprentices to be well 
taught, and that when this is insuflScient public shops should 

* This is an error, see page 30. 

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6 



STATISTICS OF LABOR. 



[Pub. Doc. 



be supported. In a word, the chief end of a trade union should 
be to secure the best possible education in school and in shop 
for its coming members." 

This Department, in order to ascertain public opinion con^ 
cerning the apprenticeship system, issued circular letters, nearly 
500 of which were sent to employers and about 1,000 to em- 
ployees, the employees being oflScers of trade unions. 

The questions asked of employers and union officials were 
as follows : 



The Union. 

1. Is there a system of apprenticeship 
in your trade ? 

2. Is it under the immediate control 
of your union ; if so, how many appren- 
tices are permitted to each journeyman ? 

3. Do you consider it a good plan to 
restrict the number of apprentices? 

4. If the employer were permitted to 
employ ^s many apprentices as he wished 
do you think that he would take advan- 
tage of the situation by employing ap- 
prentices to the exclusion of journeymen? 

5. If the number of apprentices is re- 
stricted how many may be employed in 
each shop or factory and what are the 
conditions of employment? 

6. What is your opinion of the result 
of the attitude of the trade unions on 
the restriction of apprentices; will it be 
for the future benefit of the young men 
or will it result in their undevelopment 
and the gradual extinction of the old- 
fashioned all-round workman? (Your 
candid opinion is earnestly requested in 
reply to this inquiry.) 

7. If there is any restrictive clause in 
your constitution or by-laws in relation 
to apprentices, have you any objection to 
supplying this Department with a copy 
of the same for publication, and if not 
will you kindly inclose it with your 
reply to the above questions ? 

Replies were received from 58 employers and 104 officers of 
trade unions, or 10.80 per cent of the number of circulars 
mailed. The employers answering represented some of the 
largest establishments in the State, and the trade union offi- 
cials were connected with the most influential of the labor 
unions. The replies received are distributed among the fol- 
lowing industries : 



Thb Emplotbb. 

1. Is there a system of apprenticeship 
in your trade ? 

2. Is it under the immediate control 
of trade unions; if so, how many ap- 
prentices are you permitted to employ 
to each journeyman ? 

3. Do you consider it a good plan to 
restrict the number of apprentices ? 

4. If you were permitted to employ as 
many apprentices as you wished could 
you dispense with the services of some 
of the journeymen you are now obliged 
to employ, or, in other words, would you 
empl<^ apprentices to the exclusion of 
journeymen ? 

5. If the number of apprentices is re- 
stricted by the trade unions how many 
may you employ and what are the con- 
ditions of employment ? 

6. What is your opinion of the result 
of the attitude of the trade unions on 
the restriction of apprentices ; will it be 
for the future benefit of the young men 
or will it result in their undevelopment 
and the gradual extinction of the old- 
fashioned all-round workman? (Your 
candid opinion is earnestly requested in 
reply to this inquiry.) 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESfflP SYSTEM. 



INDUSTRIIS. 



The Union 




Boots and shoes (factory product), . 

Building, 

Carriages and wagons, 

Clocks and watches, .... 

Clothing 

Cotton goods 

Electrical apparatus and appliances, 
Food preparations, .... 

Furniture, 

Hosiery and knit goods. 

Ivory, bone, shell, and horn goods, etc., 

Jewelry, 

Leather, 

Liquors (malt) 

Machines and machinery, . 
Metals and metallic goods, . ^ . 

Paper, * . 

Prmting, publishing, and bookbinding. 
Railroad construction and equipment, 
Rubber and elastic goods. . 
Scientific instruments and appliances, 

Shipbuilding, 

Stone 

Tobacco, snuff, and cigars, 

Wooden goods 

Woolen goods 

Other trades and crafts, 

Totals, 



To the inquiry < < Is there a system of apprenticeship in your 
trade? " the following were the replies received. They are ar- 
ranged by industries, in tabular form : 

Is there a system of apprenticeship in your trade 9 



Industries. 



Boots and shoes (factory product), . 

Building, 

Carriages and wagons, .... 
Clocks and watches, .... 

Clothing, 

Cotton goods, 

Electrical apparatus and appliances, . 
Food preparations, .... 

Furniture, 

Hosier V and knit goods. 

Ivory, bone, shell, and horn goods, etc.. 

Jewelry 

Leather, 

Liquors (malt), 

Machines and machinery, . 
Metals and metallic goods, . 

Paper, 

Printing, publishing, and bookbinding. 
Railroad construction and equipment. 
Rubber and elastic goods. . 
Scientific instruments ana appliances, 

Shipbuilding, 

Stone, . 

Tobacco, snuff, and cigars, . 

Wooden goods, 

Woolen goods, 

Other trades and crafts. 



Totals 81 



Thb Emplotbs 



No 



27 



Stated 



Totals 



58 



Tes 



No 



Rtated 



Totols 



2 
28 



_ 


3 


- 


3 


I 


8 


- 


1 


. 


5 


- 


1 


: 


1 


- 


3 


1 


5 


- 


2 


2 


25 



104 



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8 



STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 



Thirty-one, or 53.45 per cent, of the emplo';fln|||answering 
stated that there was a system of apprenticeship in ttteir trade, 
while 27, or 46.55 per cent, answered in the negative ; 55, or 
52.88 per cent, of the trade union officials answered "Yes," 
and 44, or 42.31 per cent, answered <« No." 

To the second inquiry '* Is the system of apprenticeship 
under the immediate control of trade unions?" the following 
replies were received : 



7s the system of apprenticeship under the immediate control of trade 

unions 9 



Boots and shoes (factory product), . 

Building 

Carriages and wagons 

Clocks and watches, .... 

Clothing, 

Cotton goods, 

Electrical apparatus and appliances, . 
Food preparations, .... 

Furniture, 

Hosiery and knit goods. 

Ivory, bone, shell, and horn goods, etc.. 

Jewelry 

Leather, 

Liquors (malt), 

Machines and machinery, 
Metals and metallic goods, . 

Paper, 

Printing, publishing, and bookbinding. 
Railroad construction and equipment. 
Rubber and elastic goods, . 
Scientific instruments and appliances. 

Shipbuilding, 

Stone, 

Tobacco, snuff, and cigars, . 

Wooden goods, 

Woolen goods, 

Other trades and crafts. 



Totals 21 



Thb Emploteb 



Ye« No gjjj^ Totols 



37 



58 



YeB No sSted Totals 



46 



19 



52 



2 

28 



25 



To this second inquiry, 21, or 36.21 per cent, of the em- 
ployers who answered replied that the control of the apprentice- 
ship system was held by the trade unions, and 46, or 44.23 
per cent, of the trade union officials also replied to this in- 
quiry in the affirmative. 

The third inquiry was *<Do you consider it a good plan to 
restrict the number of apprentices ? " and the replies for both 
employer and trade union officials are given in the following 
table, arranged by industries : 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 



Do you consider it a good plan to restrict the number of apprentices f 



INDU8TBIKS. 



Boote and shoes (factory product), . 

Building, 

Carriages and wagons, .... 
Clocks and watches, . . . . 

Clothing, 

Cotton goods, 

Electrical apparatus and appliances, . 

Food preparations 

Furniture, 

Hosiery and knit goods, 

Ivory, bone, shell, and horn goods, etc., 

Jewelry, 

Leather, 

Liquors (malt), 

Machines and machinery, 
Metals and metallic goods, . 

Paper 

Printing, publishing, and bookbinding, 
Railroad construction and equipment. 
Rubber and elastic goods. 
Scientific instruments and appliances. 

Shipbuilding 

Stone, 

Tobacco, snuff, and cigars, . 

"Wooden goods, 

Woolen goods 

Other trades and crafts, 

Totals, 



The Employbr 



Y" No Steted Totals 



41 



12 



Ye« No sStti Totals 



2 
23 



71 



2 

28 



To this inquiry, five, or 8.62 per cent, of the employers and 71 , 
or 68.27 per cent, of the trade union officials replying to the ques- 
tion, considered that it was a good plan to restrict the number of 
apprentices ; while 70.69 per cent of the employers and 17.31 per 
cent of the trade union officials thought that the restrictive plan 
was not for the best or ultimate advantage of the young man. 

In brief, the fourth inquiry is expressed as "Would you 
employ apprentices to the exclusion of journeymen?'' although 
when asked of trade union officials the wording of the inquiry 
wa3 expressed differently, but bore the same meaning. 

Would you employ apprentices to the exclusion of journeymen f 



INDUSTBIES. 


Thb Emplotbr 


Thb Union 




















Tea 


No 


Not 
Stated 


Totals 


Yes 


No 


Not 
Stated 


Totals 


Boots and shoes (factory product). . 


. 


1 




1 


2 




. 


2 


Building, 


2 


3 


1 


6 


20 


7 


1 


28 


Carriages and wagons, .... 


_ 


4 


_ 


4 


« 


_ 


- 


- 


Clocks and watches, .... 


- 


1 


- 


1 


_ 


- 


. 


. 


Clothing, 


« 


1 


2 


3 


2 


1 


_ 


3 


Cotton goods, 


1 


_ 


2 


3 


4 


_ 


5 


9 


Electrical apparatus and appliances, . 


- 


1 


1 


2 


2 


_ 


- 


2 


Food preparations, .... 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


. 


2 


Furniture, 


~ 


1 


2 


3 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 



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10 



STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 



Would you employ apprentices to the exclusion of journeymen f — Concluded. 



INOUSTSIBS. 



HoBiery and knit goods, 

Ivory, bone, shell, and horn goods, etc., 

Jewelry 

Leather, 

Liquors (malt), 

Machines and machinery, 
Metals and metallic goods, . 

Paper, 

Printing, publishing, and bookbinding. 
Railroad construction and equipment. 
Rubber and elastic goods. 
Scientific instruments and appliances. 

Shipbuilding, 

Stone, 

Tobacco, snuff, and cigars, . 

Wooden goods, 

Woolen goods, 

Other trades and crafts. 



Totals, 



Thv Employer 



Yea No gfated Totals 



15 



58 



Ye» I No gS«t^ Totals 



1 
3 
2 

11 



67 



17 



The employers, as a rule, expressed the opinion that they 
would not employ apprentices to the exclusion of journey- 
men, but about two-thirds of the trade union officials believed 
that employers, if given the opportunity, would discharge jour- 
neymen and employ apprentices only. 

The particular branches of trade included in the line '< Other 
trades and crafts," as shown in the preceding tables, are given 
below, together with the replies to the four inquiries. 



Occupations. 


1. li there 
a system o/ap- 
prentieeship 
in your trade? 


2. Is it under 
the immediate 
control of your 
union; if sOy 
how many ap- 
prentices are 
allowed to each 


S. Do you 
consider it a 
good plan to 
restrict the 
number of ap- 
prentices? 


4. If the employer were 
permitted to employ as 
many apprentices as he 
wished, do you think that 
he would take advantage 
0/ the situation by employ- 
ing apprentices to the ex- 
elusion of journeymen? 




Tet 


No 


Kot 
Stated 


Yes 


No 


Not 
Stated 


Yes 


No 


Not 
Stated 


Yes 


No 


Not 
Stated 


Barbers, . 
Bartenders, 
Building laborers. 
Car conductors, . 
Coast seamen, . 
Cooks and stewards, . 
Dry goods clerks. 
Laundry workers. 
Locomotive firemen, . 
Longshoremen, . 
Musicians, . 
Railroad trainmen, . 
Retail clerks. . 
Sewer workers, . 
Stationary engineers, . 
Stationary firemen, . 
Steam engineers. 
Team drivers, . 


3 

1 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
3 


1 
1 


3 

1 




1 


3 

1 

1 

1 
1 

1 

1 

1 
I 
1 


1 
1 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 


1 
1 

1 

1 

1 

1 


3 

1 

1 

1 
1 

1 

1 

1 
1 


1 

i 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 


1 
1 

1 

1 

1 

1 
1 


Totals, 


4 


19 


2 


4 


19 


2 


12 


7 


6 


11 


7 


7 



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No. 15.] THE APPKENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 



11 



The same general characteristics govern the trade union 
replies among the industries as among the trades. 

Consolidating all the inquiries, and the replies to the same, 
we obtain the following table : 



Inquiries. 



1. Ib there a system of apprenticeship in your 

trade? 

2. Is it under the immediate control of trade 

unions; if so, how many apprentices are 
you permitted to employ ? . . . . 

3. Do you consider it a good plan to restrict the 

number of apprentices? 

4. If the employer were permitted to employ as 

many apprentices as he wished, would he 
dispense with the seryices of the journey- 
men now. employed, or, in other words, 
would he employ apprentices to the ex- 
clusion of journeymen ? 



The Euplotbb 



Yes No s2?Jd Totals 



12 



58 



Yes No sSted T°<*1> 



67 



20 



6 
15 



17 



104 

104 
104 



104 



No analysis is needed, as the figures in this table are suflS- 
ciently indicative of the opinions of employers and employees. 

Law of Apprentices. 
The following is the law of Massachusetts affecting the in- 
denturing of apprentices : 

CHAPTER 166 

(Revised Laws of Massachusetts) 

Of Mastbbs, Appbbnticbs, and Sbbyants. 

Sbction 1 . A child under the age of fourteen years may be bound as an apprentice 
or servant until that age ; and a minor above said age may be bound as an apprentice 
or servant, a female to the age of eighteen years or to the time of her marriage within 
that age, and a male to the age of twenty-one years. 

Sbction 2. A child under the age of fourteen years maybe bound by the father, 
or, in case of his death or incompetency, by the mother or legal guardian. If 
illegitimate, he or she may be bound by the mother during the lifetime of the 
putative father as well as after his decease. If such children have no parent com- 
petent to act and no guardian, they may, with the approval of the selectmen of the 
town in which they reside, bind themselves. The power of a mother to bind her 
children shall cease upon her subsequent marriage, and shall not be exercised by 
herself or by her husband during the continuance of such marriage. 

Sbction 3. A minor above the age of fourteen years may be bound in the same 
manner, but, if bound by his parent or guardian, the indenture shall recite his con- 
sent and shall be signed by him. 

Sbction 4. A minor child who is, or either of whose parents is, chargeable to a 
town as having a lawful settlement therein or supported there at the expense of the 
commonwealth may, whether under or above the age of fourteen years, be so bound 
by the overseers of the poor, a female to the age of eighteen years or to the time of 
her marriage within that age, and a male to the age of twenty-one years ; and pro- 
vision shall be made in the contract for teaching such minor reading, writing and 



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12 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

arithmetic, and for such other instruction, benefit and allowance, either within or 
at the end of the term, as the overseers may require. 

Section 5. A minor shall not be bound as an apprentice or servant except by an 
indenture of two parts sealed and delivered by both parties ; and if a minor is bound 
with the approval of the selectmen, they shall certify such approval in writing upon 
each part of the indenture. 

Section 6. One part of the indenture shaN be kept for the use of the minor by the 
parent or guardian who executes it, and, if madis with the approval of the selectmen 
or by the overseers of the poor, shall be deposited with the town clerk for the use of 
the minor. 

Section 7. All considerations of money or other things paid or allowed by 
the master upon a contract of service or apprenticeship made in pursuance of this 
chapter shall be paid or secured to the sole use of the minor who is bound thereby. 

Section 8. No minor shall be bound as an apprentice or servant un less his parent 
or guardian or a responsible person in his behalf gives a bond in the sum of two 
hundred dollars to the master, with condition that the minor shall serve him for 
the full term of his apprenticeship or service, and that the master shall be held 
harmless from any loss or damage from the breach of such condition ; but if the 
parents are unable to give such bond a bond in such sum as may be agreed upon by 
and between the master and the parents or guardian of such child may be given. 
The master shall also give bond to the minor in a like sum, with condition that 
the master shall comply with the conditions of the indenture, shall not be guilty of 
any misconduct towards the apprentice or servant and shall hold the apprentice or 
servant harmless from any loss or damage by reason of any failure on his part to 
comply with the terms of the indenture. If minors are bound by state, town or 
municipal authorities or authorized agents, the bond required to be given to the 
master may be waived by the parties. 

Section 9. The bond given by the master shall be kept for the use of the minor 
by his parent or guardian ; and if there is no parent or guardian, it shall be deposited 
with the clerk of the town in which the master resides for the use of the minor. 

Section 10. Parents, guardians, selectmen and overseers shall inquire into the 
treatment of all children bound by them or with their approval, or by their prede- 
cessors in office or with their approval, and shall defend all such children from 
cruelty, neglect or breach of contract on the part of their masters. 

Section 11. Complaints by parents, guardians, selectmen or overseers for mis- 
conduct or neglect of the master, and by the master for gross misbehavior of the 
apprentice or servant or his refusal or wilful neglect to do his duty may be filed in 
the probate court in the county in which the master resides and shall state the facts 
and circumstances of the case. The court shall order notice to the adverse party, 
and, if the complaint is made by the master, to all persons who have covenanted in 
behalf of the apprentice or servant and to the selectmen who approved the indenture 
or to their successors in office, and it shall have jurisdiction in equity to hear and 
determine such complaint. It may enter a decree that the minor be discharged 
from his apprenticeship or service, or that the master be discharged from his con- 
tract. A minor who has been so discharged may be bound out anew. 

Section 12. Costs may be awarded to the prevailing party, and execution issued 
therefor; but no costs shall be awarded against selectmen or overseers, unless it 
appears that the complaint was made without just and reasonable cause. Costs in 
favor of the master may be recovered of the parent or guardian who executed the 
indenture, or, if there is no parent or guardian liable therefor, such costs may be 
recovered in an action against the minor when he arrives at full age. 

Section 13. All damages recovered from a master in an action on the indenture 
for the breach of a covenant on his part shall, after deducting the necessary charges 
in prosecuting such action, be the property of the minor and may be applied and 
appropriated to his use by the person who recovers the same, and the residue shall 
be paid to the minor, if a male, at the age of twenty-one years, or, if a female, at 
the age of eighteen years or at the time of her marriage within that age. 



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Section 14. Such action may be brought by the parent of the minor or his execu- 
tor or administrator, by the guardian o/ the minor or his successor or by the overseers 
of the poor or their successors ; or it may be brought in the name of the minor by his 
guardian or next friend, as the case may require, or by himself after the expiration 
of the term of apprenticeship or service. 

Section 15. If the action is brought by the overseers, it shall not abate by the 
death of any of them, or by their being succeeded in office, but shall proceed in the 
names of the original plaintiffs or of the survivor of them, or of the executor or 
administrator of the survivor; and the money recovered in such action shall be 
deposited in the city or town treasury, to be applied and disposed of as provided 
in section thirteen. 

Section 16. No such action shall be maintained, unless commenced during the 
term of apprenticeship or service or within two years after its expiration. 

Section 17. If judgment in such action is rendered for the plaintiff, the court 
may, upon his motion, discharge the minor from his apprenticeship or service, if it 
has not already been done as before provided, and the minor may be bound out anew. 

Section 18. No indenture of apprenticeship or of service made in pursuance of 
this chapter shall bind the minor after the death of his master, but the apprentice- 
ship or service shall be thereby discharged, and the minor may be bound out anew. 

Section 19. The foregoing provisions of this chapter shall apply as well to 
mistresses as to masters. 

Section 20. The provisions of this chapter relative to the selectmen or 'over- 
seers of the poor of a town shall apply to the mayor and aldermen and overseers of 
the poor of a city or to such other officers as have charge of the poor therein. 

Begiilation of Apprentices. 

In the following table is shown the written and unwritten 
regulations or restrictions of the various ti-ade unions in regard 
to apprentices. The table shows the names of the unions, the 
length of the term of apprenticeship as restricted by the unions, 
the age limitations, and the limitations as regards the number 
of apprentices that the employer is permitted to employ. 



Names of Trade Unions. 



Length of 
Apprenticeship 



Age 
Limitations 



Limitations as Regards Num- 
ber of Apprentices 



Buildinir Trade*. 

United Brotherhood of Car- 
penters and Joiners. 

Amalgamated Society of 
Carpenters and Joiners. 

Bricklayers and Masons' 
International Union of 
America. 

Brotherhood of Painters, 
Decorators, and Paper- 
hangers of America. 

Boston Painters and Deco- 
rators. 



Plasterers* Protective Union, 



3 years, 
Not stated, 
3 years, 

3 years, 

3 years, 

4 years. 



Over 18 years, Not limited. 
16, not over 18, Not limited. 



Not stated, . j Three apprentices to each 
master mason. 



Not over 21, . Limited by local unions. 



I 
At least 21 at One to every 6 journeymen, 
end of ap- 



prenticeship. 
Not stated. 



Two to a shop ; an extra one 
if son of a union member. 



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STATISTICS OF LABOR. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Nambs of Tradb Unions. 


Length of 
Apprenticeship 


Age 
Limitations 


Limitations as Regards Num- 
ber of Apprentices 


BnildiBff Tr»dM~Con. 








United Association of 
Journeymen Plumbers, 
Gasfitters, Steamfitters, 
and Steamfitters' Helpers 
of the United States and 
Canada. 


Not stated, . 


Not stated, . 


All left to local unions with 
Injunction to endeavor to 
secure the abolishment of 
apprentices. 


Plumbers' Protective Union, 


5 years, 


Not stated, . 


Not stated. 


Plumbers' Unions : 








Boston, .... 


Not stated, . 


Not stated, . 


One to every 5 journeymen. 


Brockton, 


Not stated, . 


Not stated, . 


One to a shop. 


HaverhUl, . . . 


Not stated, . 


Not stated, . 


One to a shop. 


Lynn, .... 


5 years. 


Over 17, . 


One to a shop. 


Marlborough, . 


Not stated, . 


Not stated, . 


One to a shop. 


North Adams, 


NotsUted, . 


Not stated, . 


One to every 3 journeymen. 


Northampton, 


Not stated, . 


Not stated, . 


One to every 4 journeymen. 


Pittsfield, 


Not stated, . 


Not sUted, . 


One to a shop. 


Springfield, . 


Not stated, . 


Not stated, . 


One to a shop. 


Worcester, 


Not stated, . 


Not stated, . 


One to a shop. 


Gasfitters, Fixture Fitters 
and Hangers' Union. 


6 years, 


Not stated, . 


Not stated. 


International Association of 
Steam, Hot Water, and 
Power Pipe Fitters and 
Helpers. 


Not stated, . 


Not stated, . 


Not stated. 


International Brotherhood 
of Electrical Workers. 


3 years, 


Not stated, . 


Not stated. 


International Union of Ele- 
vator Constructors. 


4 years, 


Not less than 18, 
not over 21. 


One-to every 10 mechanics. 


International Union of Steam 
Engineers: "Hoisting 
Engineers." 


Not stated, . 


Not stated, . 


Not stated. 


The Amalgamated Sheet 
Metal Workers* Interna, 
tional Association. 


2 years. 


Not stated, . 


One to each employer. 


Architectural Iron Workers, 


Optional with em. 
ployer. 


Not stated, . 


One to each journeyman. 


Bridge and Stmctnral Iron 
Workers. 


18 months, . 


Not over 30, . 


One to 7 bridge men. 


Granite Cutters' National 
Union of the United States 
of America. 


Limited by local 
unions. 


Not stated, . 


Limited by local unions. 


Granite Cutters (Chelms. 
ford). 


2 years, 


Not stated, . 


One for every 4 journeymen 
sharpeners employed; not 
more than 3 apprentices to 
full gang of cutters. 


Granite Cutters (Quincy), . 


3 years, 


Not stated, . 


Three to a gang (14 men) ; if 
only 2 journeymen are em- 
ployed only 2 apprentices 
allowed; if more than one 
gang, 1 apprentice allowed 
to each additional 4 journey- 
men. 



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NAMK8 OF TSADK UNIONS. 


Length of 
Apprenticeship 


Aire 
LimiUtions 


berof ApprenUces 


BnUdlBV Trmdcs — Con. 








Graoite Cuttere (Worcee. 

ter). 


Not stated, . 


Not stated, . 


One to a gang or less; 1 to 
fraction of a gang. 


Artificial Stone, Cement, 
and Aephalt Workers^ 
Union. 


3 years, 


Not stated, . 


Not stated. 


Freestone Cutters Interna- 
tional Union. 


4 years, . . 


Not stated, . 


One to 4 men; no shop en- 
titled to more than 4 ap- 
prentices. 


Marble Cutters and Setters, 


4 years. 


Not over 18, . 


One to a shop; one to 6 
journeymen. 


Amalgamated Woodwork- 
ers' International Union of 
America. 


3 years, . . 


Over 16, under 
19. 


Not stated. 


Wood, Wire, and Metal 
Lathers. 


2 years. 


Not over 21, . 


Not stated. 


Roofers' Protective Union, . 


3 years. 


Not stated, . 


In the hands of executive 
officers of union. 


Heat, Frost, General Insula- 
tors, and Asbestos Work- 
ers* Union. 


3 years. 


Not stated, . 


Not stated. 


Decorative Glass Workers 
Union. 


4 years, . . 


Not stated, . 


Not stated. 


Sign Painters and Sign 
Writers' Union. 


3 years, . . 


Not stated, . 


One to each shop ; 1 for every 
4 journeymen. 


Building Laborers' Interna- 
tional Protective Union. 


Not stated, . 


Not stated, . 


Not stated. 


Team Drivers* International 
Union of America. 


Not stated, . 


Not sUted, . 


Not stated. 


CloibiBV Trades. 








United Hatters of North 
America. 


3 years. 


Until 21, . . 


Shops employing 10 men. 1 ; 
and for each additional 10 
men, 1. Shops employing 
less than 10 must apply to 
local union. 


United Cloth Hat and Cap 
Makers 


Not stated, . 


Not stated, . 


Only sons of journeymen are 
allowed.and they are taught 
at home by their parents. 


Hat Tip Printers, . 


8 years, 


Not stated, . 


One to a shop. 


aothing Cutters and Trim- 
mers' Union. 


1 year, . . . 


Not stated, . 


One to a shop. Sons given 
the preference. 


United Garment Workers 
of America. 


Not stated, . 


Not stated, . 


Not stated. 


Journeymen Tailors' Union 
of America. 


Not stated, . 


Not over 18, . 


One to a shop. 


The Shirt Waist and Laun- 
dry Workers' Interna- 
tional Union. 


Not stated, . 


Not stated, . 


Not stated. 


Boot and Shoe Workers' 
Union. 


Not stated, . 


Not stated, . 


Not stated. 


PrtBtlBV Trades. 








International Typographical 
Union. 


Not stated, . 


Not stated, . 


Limited by local imions. 



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16 



STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 



Nahes of Tradb Unions. 



Length of 
Apprenticeship 



Age 
Limitations 



Limitations as Regards Num- 
ber of Apprentices 



Prinlinir Trades — Con. 

Boston Typographical 
Union No. 13. 



Photo-Engravers' Union No. 
3. 

The Lithographic Artists'. 
Engravers' and Designers' 
League of America. 



The International Protective 
Association of Litho- 
graphic Apprentices and 
Press Feeders of the 
United States and Canada. 

The International Associa- 
tion of Lithographic Stone 
and Plate Preparers of the 
United States and Canada. 

The International Paper 
Cutters. 

Printing Pressmen's Union 
No. 67. 



Web Pressmen's Union, 

Franklin Association of 
Feeders and Helpers and 
Junior Pressmen, No. 18. 



International Plate Printers, 



International Brotherhood of 
Bookbinders. Local Union 
No. 16. 

Book Cover Stampers' 
Union. 

Paper Rulers' Protective 
Union. 



Newspaper Stereotypers' 
Union No. 2. 

Newspaper Writers' Union 
No.l. 



Newspaper Mailers' Union 
No.l. 



5 years, 

5 years, 
4 years, 

Not stated, 

Not stated. 

Not stated, 
4 years. 

Not stated. 
Not stated, 

4 years, 

4 years, 

5 years, 

4 years, 

5 years, 

3 years, 

4 years. 



Not stated. 



Not under 15, . 



Not under 16, , 



Not stated, 



Not stated. 



Not stated, 



Not stated, 



Not stated, . 
Not stated, . 



Under 17, 



Not under 16 
or over 18. 



Between 15 
and 18. 

Not stated. 



21 or over. 



Not stated. 



Over 17, . 



Offices employing 2 but under 
10 men, 1 apprentice ; offices 
employing 10 but under 15 
men, 2 apprentices ; offices 
employing 15 but under 30 
men, 3 apprentices.* Not 
over 5 In any office. 

Not stated. 



Shop employing 1 to 6 jour- 
neymen artists, 1 appren- 
tice: 7 to 12 journeymen 
artists, 2 apprentices ; 13 to 
18 journeymen artists, 3 ap- 
prentices ; and so on In like 
ratio. 



Not stated. 



Not stated. 



Not stated. 



One to 10 journeymen, pro- 
vided each office is entitled 
to 1 apprentice for each 
day or night force. 

One to ev^y 10. 

Each office employing 4 mem- 
bers, 1 apprentice, and 1 
for each additional 4 mem- 
bers, but not more than 3 
to an office. 

Ratio of 1 to 6 journeymen 
and 1 to each shop with a 
fraction of 6 journeymen 
employed. 

One to every 6 journeymen 
or fraction. 



One to every stamping room. 



One to 3 journeymen, 1 ap- 
prentice; 4 to 6 journey- 
men, 2 apprentices; 7 to 9 
journeymen, 3, and so on in 
like ratio. 

One to a shop at all times. 



Settled each year, but never 
more than 1 to each 5 or 
majority fraction. 

One to each force which pub- 
lish morning and evening ; 
otherwise 1 to a shop. 



* In newspaper office, Boston, by special agreement, 1 to every 20 journeymen or majority 
fraction ; not over 4 to an office. 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESfflP SYSTEM. 



17 



Kambs of Tbadb Unions. 



Length of 
Apprenticeship 



Age 
Limitations 



Limitations as Regards Knm- 
ber of Apprentices 



Metal Trades. 

International Brotherhood 
of Blacksmiths and Help- 
ers. 

Brotherhood of Boiler 
Makers and Iron Ship 
Builders of America. 



International 



Coppersmiths' 
Union. 

FlleCntters, . 



United Gold Beaters Na- 
tional Union. 

The International Union of 
Journeymen Horseshoers 
of the United States and 
Canada. 

Iron Molders' Union of North 
America. 

Knife Forgers and Cutlery 
"Workers. 



International Association of 
Machinists. 



Metal Polishers, Buffers, 
Platers, and Brass Work- 
ers' International Union of 
North America. 



United Metal Workers* Inter- 
national Union. 

Metal and Aluminum Spin 
ners. 

Sa wsmiths of North A merica, 



Silver Workers' International 
Union of North America. 

Table Knife Grinders' Na- 
tional Union of The United 
States. 

International Tack Makers, . 



Amalgamated Wire Weavers 
Brotherhood and Protec- 
tive Association. 

Railway Employees. 

The Order of Railroad Teleg- 
raphers. 

Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers. 



4 years, 
3 years, 

Not stated, 

3 years, 

4 years. 

Not stated, 

4 years, 
4 years, 

4 years. 



Buffing, 2 ; 

Polishing, 3; 
Molding, 3; 

Brass working, 3 ; 
Plating, 8. 

Not stated, . 



4 years, 
4 years, 

3 years,* 

3 years, 

4 years, 
Not stated. 

Not stated. 
Not stated, 



Between 16 
and 21. 



Between 18 
and 21. 



Between 17 
and 22. 

Not stated, . 

Not over 21, . 

Not stated, 



Not under 16, . 



Between 16 
and 21. 



Between 16 
and 21. 



Not stated. 



Not stated, 



Not stated, 



Not under 16 
or over 18. 



Not stated. 
Not stated. 

Not stated. 

Not stated. 

Not stated. 
Not stated, 



One to each shop, and then 1 
to every 5 blacksmiths 
thereafter. 

Not stated. 



One to 6 journeymen or frac- 
tion. 



Not stated. 
Not stated. 

One to a shop. 



One to each shop; then 1 to 
every 8 molders employed. 

One to each shop; then 1 to 
every 5 forgers employed 
thereafter. 

One to each shop; then 1 to 
every 5 machmists there- 
after. 

Not stated. 



Not stated. 



Not stated. 



One to first 10 journeymen 
or fraction, and 1 for any 
fraction over V2 of every 
additional 10 journeymen, 
and 1 for each shop.' 

Not stated. 



Trade taught only to sons of 
members of the union. 



Son of a tacker always taught 
first; consent of union re- 
quired for others. 

One to 6 journeymen or frac- 
tion ; sons given the prefer- 
ence. 



Not stated. 
Not stated. 



* Brass finishers and pattern makers — 4 years. 



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18 



STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 



NAHB8 OF Trade Unions. 



Length of 
Apprenticeship 



Age 
Limitations 



Limitations as Regards Num- 
ber of Apprentices 



Railway Employees 

— Con. 

Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Firemen. 

Order of Railway Conduct- 
ors of America. 



Brotherhood of 
Trainmen. 



Railroad 



Brotherhood of Railroad 
Freight and Baggagemen 
of America 

International Association of 
Car Workers. 

International Brotherhood of 
Maintenance-of-Way Em- 
ployees. 

Amalgamated A ssociation of 
Street Railway Employees 
of America. 

Textile Trades. 

Card and Picker Room Pro- 
tective Association. 

Slasher Tenders' Union, 



Cotton Mule Spinners' Asso- 
ciation. 

Weavers' Progressive Asso- 
ciation. 

Loomfizers' Association, . 

International Union of Calico 
Printers. 

Amalgamated Association 
of Elastic Web Weavers. 



Alonff ttliore and Sea- 
nten. 

Ship Carpenters, . 

ShlpCalkers, 

American Brotherhood of 
Steamboat Pilots : Harbor 
No.l. 

Atlantic Coast Marine Fire- 
men's Union. 

Boston Longshoremen's 
Provident Union. 

Fishermen's Protective 
Union No. 6909. 



Atlantic Coast 
Union. 



Seamen's 



BElseellaneona Trades. 

Bakery and Confectionery 
Workers' International 
Union. 



Not stated. 
Not stated, 
Not stated. 
Not stated. 

Not stated. 
Not stated. 

Not stated, 

Not stated, . 
Not stated, , 

Not stated. 

Not stated, . 

Not stated, , 
7 years. 

Abolished, . 

3 years, 
3 years. 
Not stated, . 

Not stated, . 
Not stated, . 
Not stated, . 
Not stated, . 

2 years. 



Not' stated. 
Not stated. 
Not stated, 
Not stated, . 

Not stated, . 
Not stated. 

Not stated, . 
Not stated, . 



Not under 20 or 
over 40. 



Not stated. 

Not stated. 

Not stated. 
None, 

Abolished, 



Not stated. 
None, 
Not stated. 

Not stated. 
Not stated, 
Not stated, 
Not stated. 



Not stated. 
Not stated. 
Not stated. 
Not stated. 

Not stated. 
Not stated. 

Not stated. 
Not stated. 



Members' sons and brothers 
given preference of learning 
the trade. 

Not stated. 



Not stated. 

Not stated. 
None. 



Weavers' sons may apply for 
position as a weaver. 



One to a shop. 

None. 

Not stated. 

Not stated. 
Not stated. 
Not stated. 
Not stated. 



Not stated, . One to 5 journeymen or frac- 
tion. 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 



19 



Mamss of Tbadb Unions. 



Length of 
Apprenticeship 



Age 
Limitations 



Limitations as Regards Num- 
ber of Apprentices 



niseellABeoiis Trmd«s 

— Con. 

Bartenders* Mutual and Be- 
nevolent A BBOciation . Lo- 
cal No. 77, Boston. 

Journeymen Barbers' Inter- 
national Union of America. 

International Union of the 
United Brewery Workmen 
of America. 

International Broom and 
Whisk Makers' Union. 



National Chemical Plumbers 
and Lead Burners' Asso- 
ciation of America. 

Cigar Makers' International 
Union of America. 

Hotel and RestaurantEmploy< 
ees' International Alliance. 

Artificial Bye Makers, . 



Glass Cutters and Workers, 



Last Makers' Union No. 
9771, Maiden, Mass. 

United Brotherhood of 
Leather Workers on Horse 
Goods. 



Mattress Makers' Union, 



rattem Makers' Association, 



Pearl Cutters and Betters, . 

Piano and Organ Workers 
International Union of 
America. 



Potters, 



Quarry Workers' Interna- 
tional Union of North 
America. 

Reed, Willow, and Rattan 
Workers' International 
Union of America. 

International Wood Carvers' 
Association of North 
America. 



Not stated. 

Not stated, 
Not stated, 

Not stated, 

5 years, 

3 years, 
Not stated, 

4 years, 

Not stated, 
3 years, 
3 years. 



3 years, 

4 years, 

4 years, 
3 years, 

5 years; kiln men 
3 years. 

1 year, . 

3 years, 

4 years. 



Not stated. 

Not under 18, . 
Not stated. 

Not under 16, . 

Not stated, . 

Not stated, 
Not stated, . 
Not stated, . 

Not stated, . 
Not stated, . 
Not stated. 



Not stated. 

Not stated. 

Not stated. 
Not over 21, 

Not stated. 
Not stated. 

Not stated. 

Not stated, 



Not stated. 

One to a shop. 

Left to action of locals. 



One to 6 journeymen ; 2 to 15 
joumevmen ; not more than 
3 to a factory. 

Not stated. 



Left to action of locals. 

Not stated. 

Rules very stringent; appren- 
tices must pay for privilege 
of learning. 

Matter left entirely to em- 
ployer. 



Sons only. 



Retail shops employing 2 but 
under 20 journeymen. 1 ap- 
prentice allowed. Factories 
employing 10 journeymen, 
1 apprentice; 20 journey- 
men, 2 apprentices; SO 
journeymen, 3 apprentices ; 
40 journeymen, 4 appren- 
tices ; 50 journeymen, 5 ap- 
prentices. Not more than 5 
to any branch. 

One apprentice to every 10; 
a tuft boy considered an 
apprentice. 

One to 7 journeymen; 2 to 
12 journeymen; not over 3 
to a shop. 

Not stated. 

Left to action of locals. 



Not stated. 
Not stated. 

Not stated. 



Not over 3 to a shop; for 
each 5 journeymen, 1 ap- 
prentice ; 10 journeymen, 2 
apprentices; over 10 jour- 
neymen, 3 apprentices. 



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20 



STATISTICS OF LABOR. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Names of Teadk Unions. 


Length of 
Apprenticeship 


Age 
Limitations 


Limitations as Begards Mam- 
ber of Apprentices 


lElse«ll»iieoiiB Crafto- 








ActorB» Protective Union 
No. 1. 


Not stated, . 


Not stated, . 


Not stated. 


International Fanners' Union 
of North America. 


Not stated, . 


Not sUted, . 


Not stated. 


Grocery. Provision, and Fish 
Clerks* Association. Local 
No. 160 R C.I. P. A. 


Notsteted, . 


Not stated, . 


Not stated. 


Horn, Celluloid, Comb, and 
Novelty Workers' Union. 


Not stated, . 


Not stated, . 


Not stated. 


Boston Musicians' Protec- 
tive Association. Local 
No. 9. 


Not stated, . 


Not stated, . 


Not stated. 


Amalgamated Meat Cutters 
and Butcher Workmen of 
North America. 


Not stated, . 


Not stated, . 


Not stated. 


United Brotherhood of 
Papermakers. 


Not stated, . 


Not stated, . 


Not stated. 


The Commercial Telegra. 
phers' Union of America. 


Not stated, . 


Not stated, . 


Not stated. 



There are 134 local and international unions in the preced- 
ing table, of which 59 do not state any limitations as regards 
the number of apprentices, and in many of these cases the 
character of the organizations makes limitations unnecessary. 
Four unions state that they have no limitations, and seven 
report that the matter of apprentices is regulated by the local 
unions. Five unions teach sons or brothers of members only, 
and one gives preference to sons, requiring the consent of the 
union to instruct any one else. One union has very stringent 
rules, apprentices paying for the privilege of being taught, 
and one other leaves the matter entirely to the employer. 
Fifteen unions permit the employment of one apprentice to a 
shop, while 39 permit the employment of one to a stated num- 
ber of journeymen and more according to a ratio scheme of 
progression. One of the international unions leaves the matter 
of limitation to the local bodies, with the injunction to do all in 
their power to secure the abolishment of apprentices. One 
allows two to a shop, but will permit the employment of an 
extra one if he happens to be the son of a union member. 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 21 

Sample Apprenticeship Agreements. 

The following show the apprenticeship blanks used by some 
of the manufacturing establishments in the Conmionwealth : 

TEBMS OP APPRENTICESHIP OP THE GEO. P. BIiAEE MPG. CO.* 

Applicants should be eighteen years of age. 

Application must be made in person and in writing. 

Successful applicants shall serve a trial term of three months, and, if at that 
time satisfactory, will be admitted to regular apprenticeship upon the execution 
of the appended " Agreement." 

Four years of full working days, including trial term, constitute the term of 
apprenticeship. Wages to be as follows : — - Ten (10) , twelve and a half (12%) , 
fourteen (14), and fifteen (16) cents per hour actually worked, for the first, 
second, third and fourth years respectively, to be paid upon the regular pay-day. 
Thirteen (13) days, as designated by the Company, will be allowed annually for 
recreation, thus leaving three hundred (300) working days, which constitute a 
full year's labor. Time lost during any year must be made up at the rate for 
that year, before succeeding year of apprenticeship will commence. 

The Company will instruct the apprentice in its shops during his apprentice- 
ship, and reserves the right to shorten the hours of labor or suspend apprentices 
at any time that the conditions of business render such course advisable. Time 
thus lost need not be made up. 

The ** Terms of Apprenticeship ** may be terminated and the apprentice dis- 
charged at any time for incompetency, non-conformity to the Regulations of the 
Company which are made a part hereof, or improper conduct in or out of the 
shop. 

APPLICATION. 

19 . 

To THE GEO, F. BLAKE MFG. CO. 

I hereby make application^ in accordance with ** Terms of Apprenticeship,** 
in .Department. 

Signed, 

Accepted for Term of Trial, 19 . 

Signed, THE GEO. F. BLAKE MFG. CO. 

Per 



AGREEMENT. 
This Agreement, made and entered into this— 



day of ^ A. D. 19 by and between 

The Geo. F. Blake Mfg. Co., havings works located in East Cambridge, Mass., 

of the first part of 

of the second part, and of 

of the third part. 

* Form need in pattern shop. Another form is used for the foundry requiring the applicant 
to be 17 years of age and to serve a trial term of six months. Wages as follows : 8, 10, 12^^, 
and 15 cents per hour actually worked. 



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22 STATISTICS OF LABOE. [Pub. Doc. 

Witnesseth, that whereas the party of the second part is desirous of becom- 
ing an apprentice to said party of the first part, the said party of the first part, 
in consideration of the sum of Fifty ($50) Dollars to it paid by said party of the 
third part, hereby accepts said party of the second part as an apprentice in 
accordance with and subject to the *' Terms of Apprenticeship " hereto annexed 
and made a part hereof. The above Fifty ($60) Dollars to be refunded at the 
end of term of trial if the applicant is not accepted. 

And the party of the second part, in consideration of such acceptance, hereby 
agrees to become the apprentice of said party of the first part in full accordance 
with said '•Terms of Apprenticeship." 

And the party of the third part, in consideration of the execution of this 
agreement by said party of the first part, for himself, his executors, and admin- 
istrators, hereby covenants and agrees to and with said party of the first part, 
that the party of the second part shall well and truly conform to and abide by 
all the provisions of said "Terms of Apprenticeship,*' and in case said party of 
the second part shall in any wise violate any of the provisions thereof or shall 
abandon such apprenticeship before the expiration thereof, without the consent 
of said party of the first part, to pay to said party of the first part the further 
sum of Fifty ($50) Dollars, the same to be considered as liquidated damages for 
breach of this contract. 

And the party of the first part further agrees, in the event that said party 
of the second part shall remain its apprentice during the full term of apprentice- 
ship, to pay to said party of the third part, in further consideration of such 
faithful service on the part of said apprentice, the sum of Fifty-six ($56) Dollars. 

In 'Witness Whereof, the parties hereto have hereunto set their hands and 



seals (the party of the first part by_ 



its _ ^duly authorized for that purpose), the day and year 

first above written. 

(Executed in duplicate) . 

Executed in ) ^g^^^ ^ 

presence of j 

[ Seal. ] 

[Seal.] 



RUIiES AND CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH APPRENTICES ARE RE- 
CEIVED FOR INSTRUCTIONS AT THE WORKS OP THE DEANE 
STEAM PUMP CO., HOLYOKE, MASSACHUSETTS. 

1. Applicants for apprenticeship under this agreement must have reached the 
age of 17 years. Parent or guardian must show certificate giving age of applicant. 

2. Apprentices are to work for us well and faithfully under the shop rules and 
regulations for the term of 12,000 hours, commencing with the acceptance of this 
agreement, in such capacity and on such work as the employer may direct, and at 
such times and places as directed, and must agree not to accept employment in any 
other machine shop during the four years next ensuing from the date of this agree- 
ment. 

3. The employer reserves the right to suspend work in the shop, wholly, or in 
part, at any time it may be deemed necessary. In such cases apprentices shall be 
paid only for the actual time they shall work. 

4. Should the conduct or work of apprentices not be satisfactory to employer, 
they may be dismissed at any time without previous notice. 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 23 

5. Overtime shall count on the 12,000 hours, but all absences shall be made up. 

6. Apprentices must purchase from time to time such tools as they require for 
doing rapid and accurate work. 

7. The said term of 12,000 hours shall be divided into eight periods of 1,500 hours 
each, and the compensation shall be as follows, payable weekly to each apprentice : 

For the first period of 1,600 hours, ... 5 cents per hour. 
For the second period of 1,500 hours, ... 6 cents per hour. 
For the third period of 1,500 hours, ... 7 cents per hour. 
For the fourth period of 1,500 hours, ... 8 cents per hour. 
For the fifth period of 1,500 hours, ... 9 cents per hour. 
For the sixth period of 1,500 hours, . . . 10 cents per hour. 
For the seventh period of 1,500 hours, . . 12 cents per hour. 
For the eighth period of 1,500 hours, . . .13 cents per hour. 

8. Each apprentice who has faithfully and satisfactorily completed his term of 
instruction shall, in consideration of the full and satisfactory completion of this 
contract, in accordance with these rules, be, on the signing of the appended cer- 
tificate by us, setting forth that he has so completed his term, entitled to a bonus 
of One Hundred Dollars, which shall be paid to him on the first regular pay day 
following the completion of the aforesaid 12,000 hours. This bonus is offered solely 
as an inducement to apprentices to fully and satisfactorily complete contracts, and, 
it is understood, no part thereof shall be deemed earned until the contract has been 
f ally and satisfactorily completed. On such completion we bind ourselves to sign 
said certificate. 

AGREEMENT. 

I, (Applicant's Name in Full) , by and with the consent of (Parent or Guardian's 
Name), my (Father or Guardian), who evidences his consent by entering into this 
agreement, hereby request (Firm's Name) to receive me into their works to instruct 
me in the trade of (Trade) under and subject to the foregoing rules and conditions, 
to which I expressly agree, and which I accept as a part of this agreement, and I 
hereby covenant, promise and agree, in consideration of the premises, to be bound 
and governed by said rules and conditions, and further, to well and faithfully per- 
form my duties. 

I Consent to this agreement, and request (Firm's Name) to receive said (Appli- 
cant's Name), as above, and in consideration of the premises, I, his (Father or 

Guardian), hereby become responsible to ; as security for the faithful 

performance of this agreement. 

In Witness Whereof, we have hereunto set our hands this 

day of , A. D. 190 

(Applicant's Signature) 
(Parent or Guardian's Signature^ 
Witnesses: 



We hereby Accept the applicant as apprentice under the above rules and con- 
ditions, this day of , A. D. 190 

(Firm's Signature) 
Witnesses: 



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24 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 



CERTIFICATE. 

This is to Certify that (Apprentice's Name) has fully and satisfactorily com- 
pleted his full term of instruction with us. 

Dated at , this day of , A. D. 190 

(Firm's Signature) 
'Witnesses : 



TERMS OF APPRENTICESHIP TO THE F. E. REED COMPANY, MANU- 
FACTURERS OF MACHINE TOOLS, WORCESTER, MASS. 

Applicants for admission to apprenticeship must be physically sound, of good 
moral character, and have received at least a good, ordinary, common school edu- 
cation. 

Application must be made in person, and, if accepted, the applicant will be given 
a preliminary trial not exceeding 1,400 hours. If this preliminary trial is satisfac- 
tory to the Company,. the applicant will then execute an agreement in the form 
hereto annexed, commencing at the date of signing this agreement, as mentioned 
in the following, unless sooner terminated as hereinafter stated. The wages to be 
paid the apprentice for this preliminary trial to be eight cents per hour for every 
hour of labor performed. 

Apprentices shall be required to serve an apprenticeship of 8,700 hours ; and the 
Company reserves the right, whenever the state of business demands it, to shorten 
the regular hours of labor. 

Apprentices shall attend to two or more machines when they may be operated 
readily by one person, and render any reasonable service in the line of their trade 
which may be required of them. They shall perform their duties with punctuality, 
diligence and fidelity, and conform to the rules and regulations which are or may 
be adopted by the Company for the government of its shops. 

Apprentices shall not belong to any military company or fire company during 
term of apprenticeship, excepting as required by law. 

The Company reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to terminate its agree- 
ment with any apprentice, also to discharge him from its employment, for non- 
conformity with its rules and regulations, want of industry or capacity, indifference 
to his duties, or improper conduct within or without the shops. 

Apprentices who leave the service of the Company before the expiration of said 
term of service, or in case of discharge by the -Company for reasons above given, 
shall forfeit the Guarantee Fund of fifty dollars, hereinafter mentioned, with ac- 
crued interest, to the Company, and the Company forever after shall not be held 
liable to any person or persons whatsoever for moneys above mentioned. 

Apprentices will be paid the following wages for each hour of actual service : 
For the first 2,900 hours, eight cents per hour ; for the second 2,900 hours, ten cents 
per hour ; for the third 2,900 hours, twelve cents per hour.* 

Wages will be paid to apprentices on the regular pay-days of the Company as 
they may be established from time to time. 

* These sums are for regular machine work in the shop ; in the erecting room, in which 
the apprentice Is supposed to be a little older, and a little stronger man, the wages for the 
three years are 10, 12, and 16 cents, respectively ; in the planer department, the wages are, 
for the three years, nine, 11, and 13 cents, respectively. The apprenticeships are divided 
into two divisions, one for apprentices under age, the other for apprentices over age, but 
the principle of both is covered in the agreement and application printed here. 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 25 

The Company will use all proper and reasonable means to cause apprentices to 
be thoroughly instructed in the trade of machinist, excepting in those branches of 
its shops wherein planing and erecting are done, and known as the " Planing De- 
partment " and the *• Erecting Department." 

Agreement made this day of A.D. 19 

between F. B. Bbbd Company, a corporation established in the City and 
County of Worcester, in the State of Massachusetts, party of the first part; 

and of 

party of the second part. 

Whereas, The party of the second part is desirous of becoming an apprentice to 
the party of the first part, for the purpose of acquiring the art or trade of machinist, 

Now this Agreement Witnesseth: 

That the party of the first part, in consideration of the covenants herein con- 
tained on the part of the party of the second part, hereby accepts the party of the 
second part as an apprentice in the art or trade of machinist, subject to and in ac- 
cordance with the *' Terms of Apprenticeship " which are hereto annexed and made 
part hereof. 

The party of the second part, in consideration of such acceptance, hereby agrees 
to become the apprentice of the party of the first part in the machinist's art or trade, 
in accordance with the said ** Terms of Apprenticeship," and to faithfully conform 
to the provisions thereof. 

The party of the second part, in consideration of the covenants on the party of 
the first part herein contained, shall deposit with the party of the first part the sum 
of fifty dollars, at the time of signing this agreement (receipt of which is hereby 
acknowledged), as a guarantee that the party of the second part shall continue in 
the service of the party of the first part for the full term of this Agreement, as 
herein mentioned, said sum of fifty dollars ($50.00) to be returned to the party of 
the second part, together with interest at four per cent, when the party of the 
second part shall have well and truly served the term of apprenticeship as herein 
mentioned. 

In Witness Whereof, The parties have hereunto set their hands and seals (the 

party of the first part by . 

its duly authorized for that purpose) the day and year 

first above written. 

[Seal.] 

[Seal.] 



TEEMS OP APPKENTICESHIP TO NOKTON GRINDING COMPANY, 
MANUPACTITRERS OP MACHINE TOOLS, WORCESTER, MASS. 

Applicants for admission to apprenticeship must be physically sound, of 
good moral character, and have received at least a good, ordinary, common school 
education. 

Application must be made in person, and, if accepted, the applicant will be given 
a preliminary trial not exceeding 1,400 hours. If this preliminary trial is satisfactory 
to the Company, the applicant will then execute an agreement in the form hereto 
annexed, commencing at the date of signing this agreement, as mentioned in the 
following. The wages to be paid the apprentice for this preliminary trial to be 
eight cents per hour for every hour of labor performed. 



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26 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

Apprentices shall be required to serve an apprenticeship of 8,700 hours; and the 
Company reserves the right, whenever the state of business demands it, to shorten 
the regular hours of labor. 

Apprentices shall attend to two or more machines when they may be operated 
readily by one person, and render any reasonable service in the line of their trade 
which may be required of them. They shall perform their duties with punctuality, 
diligence and fidelity, and conform to the rules and regulations which are or may 
be adopted by the Company for the government of its shops. 

Apprentices shall not belong to any military company or fire company during 
term of apprenticeship, excepting as required by law. 

The Company reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to terminate its agree- 
ment with any apprentice, also to discharge him from its employment, for non- 
conformity with its rules and regulations, want of industry or capacity, indifference 
to his duties, or improper conduct within or without the shops. 

Apprentices who leave the service of the Company before the expiration of said 
term of service, or in case of discharge by the Company for reasons above given, 
shall forfeit the Guarantee Fund of fifty dollars, hereinafter mentioned, with ac- 
crued interest, to the Company, and the Company forever after shall not be held 
liable to any person or persons whatsoever for moneys above mentioned. 

Apprentices will be paid the following wages for each hour of actual service : 
For the first 2,900 hours, eight cents per hour ; for the second 2,900 hours, ten cents 
per hour ; for the third 2,900 hours, twelve cents per hour. 

Wages will be paid to apprentices on the regular pay-days of the Company as 
they may be established from time to time. 

The Company will u.se all proper and reasonable means to cause apprentices to 
be thoroughly instructed in the trade of machinist, excepting in those branches of 
its shops wherein planing and grinding is done, known as the Planing and Grinding 
Department. 

Agreement made this day of AJ>. 19 

between Norton Grinding Company, a corporation established in the City 
and County of Worcester, in the State of Massachusetts, party of the first part; 



party of the second part ; and_ 



_of_ 



of. party of the third part. 

"Wliereas, The party of the second part is desirous of becoming an apprentice to 
the party of the first part, for the purpose of acquiring the art or trade of machinist, 

Now this Agreement 'Witnesseth: 

That the party of the first part, in consideration of the covenants herein con- 
tained on the part of the party of the third part, hereby accepts the party of the 
second part as an apprentice in the art or trade of machinist, subject to and in ac- 
cordance with the '* Terms of Apprenticeship " which are hereto annexed and made 
part hereof. 

The party of the second part, in consideration of such acceptance, hereby agrees 
to become the apprentice of the party of the first part in the machinist's art or trade, 
in accordance with the said ** Terms of Apprenticeship," and to faithfully conform 
to the provisions thereof. 

The party of the third part, in consideration of the covenants on the party of the 
first part herein contained, shall deposit with the party of the first part the sum of 
fifty dollars, at the time of signing this agreement (receipt of which is hereby 
acknowledged), as a guarantee that the party of the second part shall continue in 
the service of the party of the first part for the full term of this Agreement, as 
herein mentioned, said sum of fifty dollars ($60.00) to be returned to party of the 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 27 

third part, together with interest at four per cent, when the party of the second 
part shall have well and truly served the term of apprenticeship as herein men- 
tioned. 

In "Witness Whereof, The parties have hereunto set their hands and seals (the 

party of the first part hy 

its duly authorized for that purpose) the day and year 

first ahove written. 

[Seal.] 

[Seal.] 

[Seal.] 



TERMS OF APPRENTICESHIP IN CYUNDRICAIi GRINDING. 

Applicants for admission to apprenticeship must be physically sound, of good 
moral character^ and have received at least a good, ordinary, common school 
education. 

Application mast be made in person, and, if accepted, the applicant will be 
given a preliminary trial not exceeding 350 hours. If this preliminary trial is 
satisfactory to the Company, the applicant will then execute an agreement in the 
form hereto annexed, commencing at the date of signing this agreement, as men- 
tioned in the following, unless sooner terminated as hereinafter stated. The wages 
to be paid the apprentice for this preliminary trial to be eight cents per hour for 
every hour of labor performed. 

Apprentices shall be required to serve an apprenticeship of 5,720 hours ; and 
the Company reserves the right, whenever the state of business demands it, to 
shorten the regular hours of labor. 

Apprentices shall attend to two or more machines when they may be operated 
readily by one person, and render any reasonable service in the line of their trade 
which may be required of them. They shall perform their duties with punc- 
tuality, diligence and fidelity, and conform to the rules and regulations which are 
or may be adopted by the Company for the government of its shops. 

Apprentices shall not belong to any military company or fire company during 
term of apprenticeship, excepting as required by law. 

The Company reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to terminate its agreement 
with any apprentice, also to discharge him from its employment, for non-con- 
formity with its rules and regulations, want of industry or capacity, indifference to 
his duties, or improper conduct within or without the shops. 

Apprentices who leave the service of the Company before the expiration of said 
term of service or in case of discharge by the Company for reasons above given, 
shall forfeit the Guarantee Fund of twenty-five dollars, hereinafter mentioned, 
with accrued interest, to the Company, and the Company forever after shall not be 
held liable to any person or persons whatsoever for moneys above mentioned. 

Apprentices will be paid the following wages for each hour of actual service : 
For the first 1,910 hours, eight cents per hour ; for the second 1,910 hours, ten cents 
per hour ; for the last 1,910 hours, twelve cents per hour. 

Wages will be paid to apprentices on the regular pay-days of the Company as 
they may be established from time to time . 

The Company will use all proper and reasonable means to instruct the apprentice 
in the erection and operation of cylindrical grinding machines made by the Com- 
pany and the selection and use of Grinding Wheels. 

At any time during his term of service he shall, at the request of the Company, 
erect Norton Grinding Machines for the company's customers, and instruct oper- 
ators in the use of the same. 



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28 STATISTICS OF LABOK. [Pub. Doc. 

Agreement made this day of A.D. 19 

between Norton Grikdimg Company, a corporation established in the City 
and County of Worcester, in the State of Massachusetts, party of the first part ; 

and of 

party of the second part. 

Whereas, The party of the second part is desirous of becoming an apprentice to 
the party of the first part, for the purpose of acquiring the art or trade of cylindrical 
grinding, 

Now this Agreement Witneeseth: 

That the party of the first part, in consideration of the covenants herein con- 
tained on the part of the party of the second part, hereby accepts the party of the 
second part as an apprentice in the art or trade of cylindrical grinding, subject to 
and in accordance with the " Terms of Apprenticeship ** which are hereto annexed 
and made part hereof. 

The party of the second part, in consideration of such acceptance, hereby agrees 
to become the apprentice of the party of the first part in the cylindrical grinding art 
or trade, in accordance with the said ** Terms of Apprenticeship," and to faithfully 
conform to the provisions thereof. 

The party of the second part, in consideration of the covenants on the party of 
the first part herein contained, shall deposit with the party of the first part the sum 
of twenty-five dollars, at the time of signing this agreement (receipt of which is 
hereby acknowledged) , as a guarantee that the party of the second part shall con- 
tinue in the service of the party of the first part for the full term of this Agreement, 
as herein mentioned, said sum of twenty-five dollars ($25.00) to be returned to party 
of the second part, together with interest at four per cent, when the party of the 
second part shall have well and truly served the term of apprenticeship as herein 
mentioned. 

In Witness Whereof, The parties have hereunto set their bands and seals (tne 

I>arty of the first part by 

its duly authorized for that purpose) the day and year 

first above written. 

[Seal.] 

[Seal.] 



TERMS OF APPRENTICESHIP OP THE B. P. STURTEVANT 
COMPANY. 

Application must be made in person and in writing. 

Successful applicants shall serve a trial term of three months, and if at that time 
satisfactory will be admitted to regular apprenticeship upon the execution of the 
appended " Agreement." 

Three years of full working days of nine hours each constitute the term of appren- 
ticeship. Eighteen (18) days, as designated by the Company, will be allowed an- 
nually for recreation, thus leaving two hundred and ninety-five (296) working days, 
which constitute a full year's labor. Time lost during any year must be made up 
at the rate for that year before succeeding year of apprenticeship will commence. 

The Company will instruct the apprentice in its shops during his apprenticeship, 
and reserves the right to shorten the hours of labor or suspend apprentices at any 
time that the conditions of business render such course advisable. Time thus lost 
need not be made up. 

The "Terms of Apprenticeship" may be terminated and the apprentice dis- 
charged at any time for incompetency, non-conformity to the Regulations of the 
Company which are made a part hereof, or improper conduct in or out of the shop. 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 29 

APPLICATION. 

To 19 . 

/ hereby make application^ in accordance with *' Terms of Apprenticeship** 

in Department* 

Signed f 

Accepted for Term of Trial, 19 . 

Signed, 



Per_ 



AGREEMENT. 

Htdb Park, Mass., 19 

agrees to work for the B. F. Sturtbvant Co., 



for a trial term of three months, as a ^ , and in compensation for 

such service he is to receive the sum of seven cents per hour, in full, for each and 
every hour so employed. If, at the expiration of said term of trial, both employer 
and employee desire a continuation of these relations, then they will enter into a 
contract as follows : 

This Agreement, made this day of A. D. 19 , 

between of 

County of State of and the 

B. P. Stubtevant Company, a corporation duly established under the laws of Mas- 
sachusetts, and having its usual place of business in Hyde Park, County of Norfolk, 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts, witnesseth : 

That the said agrees to labor as a 

for the aforesaid Company, for the full and complete term of One Hundred and 
Fifty-six Weeks, and that he will during that time strive diligently to promote 
the interests of said Company, conducting himself in an honest, sober and moral 
manner, and faithfully and truly serving the Company. 

In consideration whereof, the said Company agrees to compensate said 
as follows: Payments to be made weekly. 

For the first Fifty-two weeks, 8 Cents per hour. For the second Fifty-two weeks, 
10 Cents per hour. For the third Fifty-two weeJES, 12 Cents per hour. 

And in case the said serves the said Company for the full term 

of One Hundred and Fifty-six weeks, as aforesaid, and upon these conditions only 
the said Company furthes agrees, in addition to his weekly wages, to present him, 
at the expiration of that time, with One Hundred and Fifty-six Dollars. 

Signed, 



And I, of said do fully consent 

and agree to the aforesaid agreement and conditions. 

Signed, 



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30 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

According to the constitution of the Fall River Loomfixers' 
Association '* any loomfixer who has had charge of a section of 
looms and run the same for 12 months may become a member 
upon filing an application for membership duly signed and 
paying his weekly dues. All bona fide fixers must make 
application on the regular blank. Learners must apply on 
the blank prepared for them, fee $10." The following is the 
form of application for a learner to the Fall River Loomfixers' 
Association : 

It is the desire of this Association to supply the trade with a good and respect- 
able class of loomfixers, and to that end any person wishing to learn the trade of 
loomfixing must apply for permission to the Executive Committee through the 
man with whom he intends to learn, and if such person is acceptable to the over- 
seer where he is employed and qualified to learn the trade of loomfixing, the over- 
seer shall attach his signature to the application. The Executive Committee 
reserves the right to accept or reject any application according to circumstances 
of trade or qualification. 

Name Age 

Residence 



Where employed _ 
Proposed by 



I, the undersigned, certify that I will assist the above named person to secure 
employment as soon as he is qualified and as circumstances will permit. 

(Signed) 

Overseer. 

Entrance Fee must be presented with the Application. 

Navy Yard Apprentices. 
On pages 4 and 5 will be found a statement made by Director 
Back of Frankfort, Germany, to the effect that the United 
States Government has not set a good example in the matter 
of apprentices to the manufacturers of the country. Mr. Back 
evidently was not aware that in the Navy Yards of the country 
provision is made for the employment of apprentices. The 
apprenticeship system was in existence in the Navy Yards for 
many years up to 1883, when it was discontinued. On Sep- 
tember 1, 1899, the system was revived and Order No. 14, 
dated April 12, 1904, is as follows : 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESfflP SYSTEM. 31 

NAVY YARD ORDER NO. 14. 

(Second Bevision.) 

EMPLOYMENT OF LABOR AT NAVY YARDS. 

Navy Dbpabtment, 

April 12, 1904. 

1. Applicants for examination for appointment as apprentices must register 
with the Board of Lahor Employment at the navy yard in which they desire em- 
ployment. 

2. No person will he examined for appointment as an apprentice until he regis- 
ters with the Board of Lahor Employment. 

3. Applicants for registration must be over 16 and under 17 years of age. 

4. Applicants should he proficient in arithmetic as far as to know how to use 
decimal fractions. 

6. The office of the Board of Lahor Employment is in the navy yard. Persons 
residing in the vicinity of the navy yard desiring to register for examination should 
apply to the Board in person, during the regular working hours of the yard, for the 
hlank forms uiK>n which application must he made and for information required 
to facilitate registration. 

6. Persons at a distance should write to the Board of Lahor Employment at the 
navy yard in which they desire to he apprenticed for the prescribed application and 
hlank certificates of recommendation. 

7. An applicant must designate on his application the specific trade in which he 
desires to he apprenticed. No applicant will he permitted to register for appren- 
ticeship in more than one trade at a time, hut if a registered applicant desires to 
have his name dropped from the eligible list he may, by application to the labor 
board in writing, do so and then register anew at the bottom of the list for appren- 
ticeship in another trade, provided he complies with the requirements for registra- 
tion in the same manner as if he had not been registered. 

8. Applicar^ts to he registered for examination must present in person to the 
Board of Lahor Employment the application and certificates of character prescribed 
in paragraph 12 of this order. 

9. All applicants will be registered in the order of their completed applications 
to the Board of Labor Employment. (See paragraph 8.) 

10. The name of a registered applicant for examination will he stricken from the 
register when the applicant reaches 17 years of age. 

11. In case an applicant is found, in the opinion of the Board of Labor Employ- 
ment, unfit or in any way disqualified to perform the service which he seeks, his 
name will not be entered on the register. 

12. The application (Navy Yard Orders, Form No. 28) must be filled out and 
signed by the applicant himself. Two certificates of character (Navy Yard Orders, 
Form No. 19) must be furnished, each of which must be signed by a reputable 
citizen residing in the same locality as the applicant, testifying to the latter's 
character and habits of industry. It is preferred that one of these certificates be 
filled out and signed by the teacher of the school which the applicant last attended. 

13. No certificates other than those filed at the date of registration will be re- 
ceived or required subsequent to entry of the applicant's name on the register. 

14. Any applicant for registration who gives a false name or residence, or pre- 
sents false certificates, or secures registration or employment through false repre- 
sentations, will be discharged and his name permanently removed from the register 
as soon as the fact is ascertained. 

15. For the number of vacancies in each trade to be filled double the number of 
names shall be taken in the order of their registration in that trade from those 
highest on the register, and notice shall be sent by the Board of Labor Employ- 
ment to said applicants to present themselves for competitive examination. 

16. The competitive examination will consist of the following: 



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32 



STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 



(a) Physical — to be conducted by a medical officer of the yard. Each appli- 
cant will be marked as regards his physique in accordance with standard medical 
growth and development tables — 100 being considered perfect. Applicants who 
do not possess the physical qualifications required will not be examined as to their 
mental qualifications. 

(6) Mental (written) — to be conducted by the examining board. The exam- 
inations shall include spelling, simple arithmetic, including decimals and the rule 
of three — 100 being considered perfect. 

(c) Mental (oral) —to be conducted orally by the examining board for the 
purpose of determining aptitude for trade, general intelligence, etc. — 100 being 
considered perfect. 

(d) The marks thus obtained to be summarized as follows : 



Examination. 



MultlpUer 



Physical, . 
Mental (written), 
Mental (oral), . 



100 
100 
100 



Total, 



300 
600 
200 



1,000 



17. The examining board shall certify to the Commandant in the order of their 
relative standing, as determined by the examination, the names of those applicants 
who pass a satisfactory examination. 

18. The Commandant shall direct the Board of Labor Employment to send 
notices to the applicants who, by reason of their relative standing, as determined 
by the examining board, are entitled to appointments. 

19. When an applicant presents the Board of Labor Employment's notice to the 
Commandant, the latter*s approval written thereon, together with the name of the 
trade to which the applicant is to be apprenticed, shall be considered an appointment. 

20. Those who pass a satisfactory examination, but who fail to receive appoint- 
ments because of all vacancies having been filled by applicants who received a 
higher grading in the examination, shall retain their original numbers on the 
register : Provided, That an applicant who fails to receive an appointment after 
two examinations shall lose his registration number, and if he desires to again 
compete he must re-register at the bottom of the list. 

21. Any applicant who fails to pass a satisfactory examination shall be dropped 
from the register and shall not be allowed to re-register for one year thereafter. 

22. The Commandants of the respective navy yards will report to the Secretary 
of the Navy on the first day of March, June, September, and December of each 
year, or as soon thereafter as practicable, the number of vacancies that occur in the 
several departments of the navy yard during the then current quarter, the cause 
of the same, and the name, rating, pay, and date of original appointment of all 
apprentices in the trade or trades in which vacancies occur. The Commandant 
will also request the heads of departments to recommend any increase or decrease 
in the number of apprentices that, in their judgment, should be allowed in each 
trade and forward their recommendation with the quarterly report to the Depart- 
ment for its action. 

23. Master workmen or other persons in charge of apprentices in the several 
departments of the yard will report quarterly in writing to the head of the Depart- 
ment as to the general conduct and progress of each apprentice under them. In 
order to secure uniformity, the standing of each apprentice will be stated in one of 
the following grades: "Excellent," "Very good,*' " Good," " Fair," or " Poor." 
Upon the receipt of the report the head of the department will examine into the 
cases of all apprentices who are reported less than " Good ; " and if, in his judg- 
ment, other action than a warning is necessary he will submit the facts, with his 
recommendation, to the Commandant, who may, in his discretion, order the sus- 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 33 

pension, disrating, or discharge of the apprentice, or take such other action as will, 
in his judgment, promote the hest interests of the Government. In case the 
apprentice is discharged the Commandant will report his action and the facts upon 
which it is based to the Secretary of the Navy. 

. 24. The Commandants of navy yards will, during the first week of March, 
June, September, and December of each year, convene a board composed of at least 
one line officer, a constructor, and a medical officer for the purpose of conducting 
the quarterly examinations for the appointment of apprentices. 

26. The board convened in June for the purpose of conducting the quarterly 
examination for the appointment of apprentices will also conduct the annual 
examination of all apprentices in the yard. In conducting the annual examina- 
tion, all the quarterly reports made by the master workmen during the year con- 
cerning apprentices will be considered by the board. Each apprentice will be 
examined at the annual examinations as to his proficiency and improvement, and 
may be required to solve problems or to do work in the presence of the board. The 
board will report whether the improvement has been such as to warrant retention, 
in which case the apprentice will be entitled to an increase of pay in accordance 
with paragraph 26 ; but in case it is found that an apprentice has not made reason- 
ably satisfactory progress, or that his conduct has not been good, the board will 
recommend that such apprentice be discharged, and the Commandant upon the 
receipt of such notice will discharge the apprentice and notify the Department of 
his action in the quarterly report to the Department for June. The report will 
state the number of vacancies in the various trades of each department that exist 
and the cause of such vacancies, together with the name, trade, age, pay, rating, 
and date of original appointment of each apprentice in the yard. 

26. The pay of an apprentice until he shall have arrived at the age of 17 will be 
2%oo. for the next year ^Aoo* for the next year *%oo. for the next year '^^oo* and for 
the last year <'%oo of the rate of wages paid to first-class journeymen workmen in the 
yard at the trade in which he serves. 

27. The Commandant of each navy yard will have a permanent record kept in 
his office of apprentices, in which shall be recorded the name, trade, age, pay, date 
of original appointment, date of promotion, date of expiration of apprenticeship, 
and the date of discharge or suspension of each apprentice in the yard. 

28. At the expiration of apprenticeship all apprentices who pass a satisfactory 
examination before the board shall receive certificates stating that they have served 
their full time, and testifying to their good conduct and proficiency. The certificate 
will be signed by the head of the department in which the apprentice has served 
and the Commandant of the navy yard, and countersigned by the chief of the 
bureau in which the apprentice has served. All apprentices receiving such certifi- 
cate will bo continued in employment, rated in accordance with their merits, and 
placed on the same footing as regular mechanics employed through the Board of 
Labor Employment. 

29. When because of suspension of work the services of apprentices are not 
needed they will be laid off by the Secretary of the Navy upon the recommendation 
of the respective heads of departments of the yard. They will receive no pay 
during said period, and when work is resumed they will be reinstated. 

30. Where apprentices are employed, no person will be taken on under instruc- 
tion. 

31. All applications must be addressed to the " Board of Labor Employment ** 
at the navy yard in which the applicant desires to be apprenticed. 

CHAS. H. DARLING, 

Assistant Secretary. 
U. S. Civil Service Commission, 

Washington^ D. C> 
A pproved : 

By direction of the Commission. 

JOHN C. BLACK, 

President. 



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34 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

The following is the form of application used : 

Navy Yard Orders^ \ Registration No 

Form 28, ) 

APPUCATION. 

Navy Yard 



hereby make application to he examined for apprentice in the_ 
Navy Yard. 

1. Where were you horn f 

2. What is the date of your hirth ? 



(Day.) (Month.) (Year.) 

3. Are your parents living? ' 



(Give full name and address.) 
4. With whom do you reside ? 



(Give full name and address.) 
6, Where and when did you last attend school ? 



(Give name of teacher.) 
6. By whom and in what capacity have you heen employed since quitting school f 



I declare that the answers I have given to the ahove questions are correct and true, 
(Signature.) 



Height Weight lbs. Complexion . 

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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 35 

The following must bo filled and returned with the applica- 
tion : 

Navy Yard Orders, \ Reg. No 

Form 20, S 

The employer or other person who signs the follovnng certificate is notified that he may he 
called upon to furnish further information concerning his knowledge of the applicant, 

TKADE CERTIFICATE. 

— - ,190 

To the 'Board of Labor Employment, 

Navy Yard,. 

/ hereby certify that I have known : 



Jiving at 



for years ; that I have employed him as a_ 

class 



for years ; that he is able-bodied, of good character, and of sober 

and industrious habits, and in every respect qualijied for employment as a 

class ^ 



and I further certify concerning him_ 



Notice to Applicant and Signer. 
The signer of this certificate must exercise great care that all statements are in accord- 
ance with facts. Any applicant for employment who gives a false name or residence, or 
presents false certificates, or secures registration or employment through false representa- 
tions will be discharged and his name permanently removed from the register as soon as 
the fact is ascertained. 



Have you read the above notice ?_ 
Name 



Residence^ 



Occupation_ 



K. B.— This certificate shall not be accepted if signed by an officer of the Navy, or a 
fbreman, quarterman, leadingman, or other employee of a ncvy yard, 4— NB 



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36 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

Opinions of the Employer and the Union on Restric- 
tion OF Apprentices. 
From the replies received to the inquiries we cull the most 
interesting answers of the employers and the trade union 
officials, and present them below, arranged by industries : 

BOOTS AND SHOES. 

The Employer, 

No. 71, In my opinion the trade onions are wholly wrong in the matter of 
restriction of apprentices. Their own children are getting very much the worst of 
it in this city, hy reason of their attitude upon this question. I have tried numerous 
times to have the unions here adopt an apprenticeship system, which I have offered 
to leave entirely in their hands, hut with the exception of the Lasters' Union, none 
of them has seen fit to take the slightest notice of my request. 

The feeling in this city among the unionists is so strong that they even prohihit 
the memhers of their own union from learning and working at more than one 
hranch. I know instances in this factory where men have left my employment to 
go elsewhere, and have paid hig prices to learn other hranches of the trade, and sub- 
sequently returned to me seeking work on the branches that they have paid to learn. 

My opinion is that it is a very great injustice to boys and girls here in this city, 
and I see no way to rectify it, except by the establishment of Manual Training 
Schools, under State control, which would be operated at night, so to give the 
shoemakers a chance to learn some other branch of the business or to perfect them- 
selves in the branches in which they are now employed. 

No. 392, If the claim is true that as soon as a boy asks for man's pay he is dis- 
placed by another boy, this is another evidence that skill is not valuable (in this 
particular line), that the work belongs to the unskilled whose need for work is 
strongest and greatest. Society's interest coincides with that of the employer rather 
than that of the typical union in this whole matter of learning trades. 

Professor John Graham Brooks states that he had been taught to believe " That 
the limitation of the number of apprentices by the unions was an inexcusable 
tyranny over American liberty.*' A trade unionist said to him, " Why should we 
allow a lot of young fellows to come in to compete against our own members who 
can't get work ? " Both Professor Brooks and the trade unionist seem to have 
overlooked the main feature of the question, which is ** What shall be done for the 
young man to give him a trade ? " They both seem to believe in the Biblical 
teaching that " Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof." The selfishness of such 
an argument is too apparent to be worth consideration. If we want our young men 
employed in gainful occupations, we must teach them at least the rudiments of a 
trade, and restricted apprenticeship or thedenial of trade unions does not do this. 
The young man has as perfect a right to this education as had his forefathers, and 
if the private shop is closed to him by the unions, the State must step forward and 
open a public shop for him or consent to the increase of a lot of tramps, loafers, 
and beggars. 

The Union. 

No. 73, Will say that in the shoe trade there is not much restriction in the 
matter of apprentices; in fact, apprentices are quite numerous in the shoe trade, 
taken as a whole. The subdivision of labor in the shoe trade has to a large extent 
eliminated skill, and long ago the extinction of the old-fashioned all-round work- 
man was an established fact. In the shoe factory system of to-day, the all-round 
workman is at a decided disadvantage as compared with a man who is trained in 
one particular small branch of the trade. The all-round workman, as we understood 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 37 

him twenty years ago, does not exist in the shoe trade to-day, and if he did exist and 
applied for employment and stated that he was an all-round workman, it is a fore- 
gone conclusion that the employer would tell him that he had no place for him, hut 
he could use a puller-over, lasting-machine operator, lining cutter, trimming cutter, 
outside cutter, edgesetter, heel trimmer, heel shaver, heel scourer, and heel slugger, 
or one of fifty or seventy-five more hranches in addition to those I have named, and 
the old-fashioned all-round workman would conclude that he had hotter go selling 
industrial insurance or take up some other equally uncertain employment. 

BUILDING. 

The Employer. 

No, 68, Restriction of apprentices and forcing them to serve a time limit will 
result in a hotter class of workmen, and will he hotter for the young man and the 
puhlic at large. 

No, 55. Without douht restriction will deter some, yet the fact is that few hoys 
nowadays care to learn a mechanical trade, few masters care to take apprentices, 
and still fewer apprentices care to serve three or more years to learn a trade. 

No. 27. I helieve that there is no need on the part of the trade union of restrict- 
ing the numher of apprentices, for a manufacturer does not care to take the time 
and money to teach a man if it is possihle to hire one who already understands the 
work. As it is impossible to do first class or rapid work with other than an 
experienced workman, I helieve that the employment of apprentices is regulated 
by the demand for such experienced workmen, and if the trade unions lessen the 
ordinary supply, the first-class all-round workman will become extinct. 

No. 62, The " attitude of trade unions*' is a very misleading use of words for 
the reason that the real trade union principle, or rather the fundamental idea 
which is commonly believed to support the fact of trade unions, has been almost 
wholly crushed by the smother of ** Grievances *' which are manufactured perpet- 
ually and upon the slightest of pretexts, so that the "attitude of trade unions" 
has ceased to express the desires of the workers whom the union is supposed to 
represent, but rather expresses the ideas which this dominating group of " griev- 
ance mongers '' has wrought into the trade union movement greatly to its detri- 
ment and danger. The effect of this sort of domination has been manifested very 
emphatically in the question of apprentices, and the effort at restriction has been 
80 persistent and so varied that it has produced a t>ositive distaste for learning 
trades; therefore, the road is distinctly oi>ened toward extinction of the " old-fash- 
ioned all-round workman." The difficulty of securing such men among the work- 
men of the day is already very great, and this condition is increasing. 

No, 275. By limiting the number of apprentices, or eliminating them entirely, 
as the unions are striving to do, will result to a greater extent than at present 
the necessity of tolerating and paying union wages to insolent, incompetent, in- 
ferior men. Owing to the union conditions in our business in this city, and the 
limited number of comi>etent journeymen, we have been coerced into signing the 
most inequitable agreement ever i>erpetrated on a business concern. Our only 
hope has been that we could pick out clever young men and (by taking a personal 
interest in them) teach them the business for their benefit as well as our own. It 
would certainly work to the detriment of the young men's future, and result in 
their undevelopment and the gradual extinction of all-round workmen if they were 
debarred from learning the business as apprentices. 

Diverting somewhat from the text, we have found that when an apprentice boy 
shows an aptitude for his trade or gives promise of developing into a good work- 
man everything is done to discourage him by the members of the union, and it is 
their desire to foist on us boys who would not learn the business in 100 years. 

Their manner of discouraging the boys from learning the business is to set up a 
cry if the boys do any woA that would give them practice or make workmen of 
them. 



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38 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

No. 301, A formal stage of apprenticeship is usually required, and in most 
places the number of apprentices is limited to conform to the requirements of labor 
unions. It is thought that the i>eriod of apprenticeship is unduly prolonged by the 
unions, and that the prevailing system does not provide the apprentice with full and 
adequate instruction. The tendency to specialize has brought about a subdivision 
of labor, which makes it impossible for the apprentice of the present day to learn 
every part of his trade as he could years ago. No man can learn all the require- 
ments of the trades as practised at the present day unless he devotes more or less of 
his time to studying the scientific principles and sanitary laws pertaining to the 
same. The apprentice who learns his trade in the usual way merely follows the 
journeyman with whom he is working, and learns just what the journeyman sees 
fit to let him learn, and no more. In some trades he is advanced or held back at the 
will of the journeyman, and unless the latter is personally interested in his success, 
or has a special liking for him, it is seldom that he is told why the work is done 
thus and so; the technical points are not explained to him, and he is left to pick 
ap the trade as best he can. 

No. 302, You will, we trust, pardon us if we speak plainly on this matter. It is 
our firm conviction that the question of apprenticeship is of sufficient importance to 
each and every one of us to demand our most serious attention, yet we find so much 
indifference to this matter that it is most discouraging. 

If an adequate system of trade schools were in operation there might be some 
hope of obtaining skilled native mechanics in the future, but such schools are few 
and far between, and even in these schools the young men deriving the greatest 
benefit are those who work daily as apprentices and who devote their evenings to 
perfecting themselves in their trade. Thus the need of taking apprentices is further 
emphasized. 

This seems more deplorable when we consider the condition of the labor market 
from an employer's standpoint. Intelligent workmen are not by any means the 
rule, many of the journeymen in our trade have picked up their knowledge of the 
business or have drifted into it from some other means of earning a livelihood. 

Employers cannot altogether be blamed for existing conditions. Few native 
American boys are willing to bind themselves or be bound, or even promise to serve 
three years to learn our trade. They look down upon a mechanic or any one who 
wears overalls, and the race for the almighty dollar is now so keen that boys are 
seldom encouraged to learn ^ trade. They want to " buy and sell and get gain " 
oftentimes by questionable methods. Sometimes after agreeing to serve three or 
more years to learn our trade, they feel constrained to leave their master at the end 
of a year or so and appear elsewhere as journeymen or perhaps as master painters, 
taking work for themselves at cut rates. 

Undoubtedly the vexed question of labor has been a factor in the case. The 
journeymen's unions have been very aggressive and in some cases their demands 
have limited the number of apprentices to be employed in shops, yet we feel that 
the scarcity of apprentices in our trade cannot be laid entirely to their charge. It 
is a matter to be determined between the masters and the boys, stiir, it is quite 
apparent that very few boys present themselves for apprenticeship in our trade, and 
the number is becoming less year by year. 

The Union. 

No. 136. ** Unrestricted apprentices ** would mean " unrestricted wages " down- 
wards. 

No. 209. Too much restriction would have a bad result on our future mechanics. 

No. 259. If the nuniber of apprentices were restricted it would better labor con- 
ditions. 

No. 260. In the painter's trade it is a good thing, as it will have a tendency to 
build up the general efficiency of the craft. 

No. 205. There are too many poor carpenters. It would be for the benefit of 
the apprentice to learn his trade thoroughly. Most of them do not. 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 39 

No, 76. A young man who serves an apprenticeship in a union shop secures a 
better foundation to become an all-round workman than he could obtain in any 
other way. 

No, 126. The trade union attitude toward apprentices is none too severe for our 
own protection, and our work under present conditions is so specialized that there 
is little use for the old-fashioned all-round workman. 

No. 141. I believe in apprenticeship to make a man a thorough mechanic. I 
am an Englishman and had to serve seven years before I could call myself a 
thoroughly practical painter, and I get the preference every time I compete with 
a man who has not served an apprenticeship. 

No. 88. Believe that reputable builders should be allowed all the apprentices 
they desire, as the boy has a fair chance of being kept at work during his term, 
which means a good mechanic. Other builders, who have not been in business two 
years, should be restricted to a certain number, or none in some cases. 

No. 130. Most assuredly restriction will be for the benefit of the young man 
who wishes to learn the trade in such a manner that at the expiration of his term 
of apprenticeship he will be a first-class mechanic. An unlimited number of ap- 
prentices would lead the trade downward into a demoralized state and produce a 
large number of inferior workmen. 

No. 256, I do not think that any harm can come to the journeyman from the 
number of apprentices, simply because the self-interest of the apprentice would not 
allow it, for he will be a journeyman some day himself. I think to restrict the 
number of apprentices in my trade would be to hurt it, as the present conditions 
show what the trade has become without any apprentices. 

No. 163. Our union was divided on this question when framing our by-laws, 
some wishing to restrict the number of apprentices to one apprentice to sis journey- 
men, and have the age limit from 17 to 21 years. I fought both measures hard, 
and succeeded in defeating the former, and having the latter from 18 to 25 years. 
I was also opi>osed to setting the price to be paid apprentices. 

No, 268. A young man should be permitted to enter any branch of trade he 
wishes and should stick to it, not shift from one to another at the least possible 
reverse and therefore become a Jack-of-all-trades and master of none. He should 
stick to it and become an expert or, as you call it, an all-round workman. The 
attitude of the labor union in restricting apprenticeship tends to elevate its condi- 
tion intellectually ; therefore it must be for the future benefit of the young man 
as well as the trade. 

No. 95. This restrictive policy will take from the unfair contractor the advan- 
tage of working a gang of inferior mechanics, under cheap conditions with two or 
three qualified mechanics to lead, to the detriment of his competitor who employs 
the best skilled workmen and recognizes the prevailing conditions on the line of 
hours and wages. The unfair contractor deprived of this advantage will wheel into 
line with the better employer and qualified mechanic and demand an apprentice- 
ship system which will regenerate the old-fashioned all-round workmen, thereby 
opening up the opportunity for the young man to aspire to mechanical positions. 
The need of this is becoming apparent in many of the crafts to-day. 

No. 203. A restriction of apprentices is beneficial to the trade interests, as the 
smaller number of apprentices coming on the stage, more especially those who are 
proi>erly qualified, cannot but help to relieve the congested condition which is at 
present in our trade. We claim the apprentices of to-day are better qualified than 
their predecessors, and the old-fashioned all-round workman, so called, is now a 
thing of the past as are many of the old time usages and customs. We aim to edu- 
cate our members by the trade schools and lectures on the trade, so to have a 
standard equal to any in the country along practical lines. 

No, 90. The attitude of trade unions that place restrictions on the number of 
"apprentices who shall be* employed in any industry will be and is to-day very in- 
jurious to the welfare of our young men, and I also think that in the future, if this 
system is persisted in, it will be the means of filling our shops and factories with 



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40 STATISTICS OF LABOK. [Pub. Doc. 

foieign-bom mechaDics, and will be the means of eyentaally leaving on our hands 
an army of unskilled young men of American parentage, who will have to seek em- 
ployment at anything they can find, regardless of conditions and wages. It will 
also lead to the extinction of the all-round workman we have been so proud of in 
days gone by. 

No. 271. If the restrictions are not drawn too fine, and apprentices serve two 
or three years, the result will be of the greatest benefit on account of workmen 
becoming more skilful, and there will not be so many who only half know their 
business. The old-fashioned all-round man is going out of existence anyway, re- 
gardless of restrictions, esi>ecially in cities. When I learned my trade I learned 
painting, calcimining, paperhanging, glazing, etc. Now they are separate trades. 
The new workman learns only one, which makes it harder for him to get along. 
A man should have more than one trade, but, of course, it is hard for a boy to get 
more than one on account of the attitude of the unions. I am not one who believes 
that everything the union does is all right. We have no restrictions but permis- 
sion of the union is necessary, and this union has never refused anyone permission 
when asked. 

No. 187. While I believe in restricting the number of apprentices in the trades, 
I do not believe in the present system of apprenticeship as practised by the carpen- 
ters and joiners, the painters and decorators, and many other trades in which only 
one apprentice is permitted to every 10 journeymen. The number is too low. 
There should be at least four apprentices to every. 10 journeymen. It is plain to 
be seen that in the near future, as these old journeymen drop off, there will not be 
a sufficient number of apprentices to take their places as journeymen. The result 
will be* a scarcity of skilled mechanics all along the line, which will work havoc 
in our different trades. It is my candid opinion that the present attitude of the 
trade unions in restricting the number of apprentices will work to the disadvantage 
of young men wishing to learn a trade in the future, and will result in many young 
men being deprived of learning the trade for which they are best fitted. If the 
present condition of things continues long we will soon be confronted with a serious 
problem : We won't have a sufficient number of skilled workmen on hand to do the 
work, and we shall be compelled to import foreign skilled labor, while our own 
young men will be walking the streets or performing ordinary labor. For the sake 
of all young men who wish to learn a trade, I sincerely hope the present system of 
apprenticeship in Massachusetts may be improved. 

No. 182, The attitude of trade unions on the restriction of apprentices will be 
for the future benefit of the young men, as an employer must give reasonable cause 
for discharging an apprentice, which means that he cannot place another in his 
position after taking a year or two of the young man's life. There are a great 
many parents who would give fifty or one hundred dollars to have their boy started 
at the trade ; that would add to the profits if a man could start as many as he chose, 
and get rid of them for slight mistakes. Then, if every contractor could start eight 
or 10 apprentices there would, in a few years, be a surplus of men in the trade, 
which would destroy ambition. It would deprive them of a hope of raising a fam- 
ily, knowing that they could not properly maintain a home. At present, with the 
weather permissible, the workmen do not average over seven months in the year, 
and many run quite short of that. The fewer the apprentices the better workmen 
they make for the simple reason that then the journeyman has more time to in- 
struct them, inspect their work, and answer their inquiries on trade matters. If 
there were several apprentices one might ask questions of those who possibly knew 
less than the one who asked. Within the last year the union had to find posi- 
tions for two apprentices, one of whom started in one of the local mills and' 
served two years ; a change of master mechanic put him out of work, and he had 
no practical knowledge of the trade. His position was cutting out holes for 
steam pipes and patching them up. The other had no work, but the union ena- 
bled him to get employment. Contractors, when at liberty to start as many appren- 



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No. 15.] THE APPKENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 41 

tices as they choose, have been in the habit of starting men thirty-five or forty 
years of age, as they can do laboring work for the first year or two for less wages 
than a laborer's pay would be nnder other circumstances, and are willing to submit 
to almost any abuse in order to better their condition. But when it comes to a raise 
in pay they have to go, because the contractor thinks a man should submit to any 
treatment, starvation included, and even then be thankful. I am not prejudiced 
against the contractors, as I am a contractor's son and intend to become a contractor 
within a few years, but I have seen those abuses and for a number of years endured 
them. If any committee can find an apprentice who has ever been shown any 
of the methods of working from plans they will be finding a rare case. Contract- 
ors are at fault for incompetent workmen. They want their apprentices to give 
them quantity all through their term, and, when it expires, they seldom think they 
are worth hiring any longer. 

CABBIAGES AND WAGONS. 

The Employer. 

Xo. 31. The restriction of apprentices, and the placing of such restrictions by 
trade unions, instead of developing all-round workmen, or good workmen, works 
in the opposite way, the tendency being to hold ambitious men down. In reference 
to the greater extension of the all-round workman : This is a matter not affected by 
union restrictions so much as by the development of manufactures. The general 
tendency is toward specializing, and only such workmen will be needed in the 
future. The all-round workman will be the one who is ambitious to become such, 
and willing to sacrifice immediate gain for future advantage. We look more particu- 
larly to the trade and technical schools, not for the all-round workman, but for 
the young man who learns the scientific part and who will not be contented to plug 
along in one department, but will become ambitious to rise. Or, the young appren- 
tice in the factory, who is ambitious, will obtain his higher education through 
technical schooling, either directly or by correspondence. In either case the prob- 
ability is that such an expert man will not remain at his trade, but will become 
foreman, or higher. Hence, we do not look for the workmen of the future to be 
all-round men. We shall not need them. We shall look for skilled men in each 
branch, and shall obtain them from among those who, through misfortune, or 
lack of ambition, are unable to go farther. In the lower grades of work unskilled 
help will be employed, but this, instead of prostituting industry, will be providing 
indoor work for men who would otherwise be mere out-door laborers. 

No. 25. Trade unions will be a drawback and will result in the undevelopment 
and the gradual extinction of the old-fashioned all-round workman. 

No. 24. The attitude of the trade unions is entirely wrong. The old system of 
all-round workmen has passed away, as all work is now divided so that men work 
only on special parts at which they soon become proficient. The result is the pro- 
duction of better work, and for this reason an intelligent person soon learns a special 
part and continues at it. This does away, in a large measure, with the system of 
apprenticeship. 

CLOCKS AND WATCHES. 

The Employer, 
No. 23. There is no doubt that the old-fashioned all-round workman is be- 
coming extinct — shops run on the making of particular pieces in quantities — on 
the " rip them out " principle, generally as job work. Young men, boys even, soon 
become quite proficient on one thing and one set of oi>erations, but when they are 
done with that they are nothing — neither machinists nor brass workers nor any- 
thing else. We have hundreds of applications for work from men of this kind, and 
they are not so valuable to us as an apprentice boy would be. 



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42 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 



CLOTHING. 

The Employer. 

No. 65. The result of restriotion of apprentices or helpers must certainly be to 
debar and prevent many young men from learning a useful trade, which, in this 
country, in France, and in other countries has been considered the foundation and 
fundamental principle of our national prosperity. I put that down for unwise, 
short-sighted selfishness. 

No. 19, The attitude of the trade unions in restricting the number of appren- 
tices will have a very harmful effect in the near future. I do not think that they 
take into consideration that a very small percentage of those who learn a trade are 
adapted to it and will ever make first-class workmen. 

By allowing a system of apprenticeship those who are adapted to a trade will make 
a success and those who are not will drop out and learn something else to which 
they are adapted, with better results for themselves and for those who employ them. 

The system of paying all alike, whether good or poor, will also have a very in- 
jurious effect. If a man thinks that he will get what he is worth it will stimulate 
his ambition and he will do the best he can to learn and improve, and this is, I con- 
sider, the key to American success. 

No. 161, No journeymen tailors' union should antagonize any apprentice system, 
but should cultivate it in order to maintain the standard of high-class tailoring. In 
all my exi>erience in this country I have never yet come across an American-bom 
young man between the ages of 18 and 25 or 30 years who was or is a journey- 
man tailor. All journeymen are foreigners from Germany, Sweden, England — 
in fact from every country in Europe and even Asia ; also from the Dominion of 
Canada and the provinces. This is the result of no system in apprenticing young 
men in this trade. Should these conditions continue to prevail, it certainly will 
result in the gradual extinction of the old-fashioned journeyman tailor, just as the 
shoemaker is no more in this country but has deteriorated into part of a machine. 
Men's garments cannot be made successfully by machine — at least not the fashion- 
able high-class garments custom tailors turn out. Even the higher class ready-to- 
wear garments have much hand work in them, it being essential that they should 
be worked and moulded by hand to insure a smooth finish and a state of keeping in 
shape and hanging correctly on the wearer's body even after they are worn for a year 
or more. It has come under my observation lately that even higher class custom 
tailors have started shops, or have their garments made in such, where piece-work 
exists all through in a higher class than the ready made. I employ from 8 to 12 
women in the shop, and in the last three years, and even before that, as I am told, 
not oue apprentice has been employed. They work by piece and will take no one 
to learn the trade unless it be a relative or a good friend. The employer has no 
control over the piece-workers in this matter, and it lays with the International 
Journeymen Tailors' Union to provide such a system and regulate it. I do not con- 
sider though that the old-fashioned tailor, that is the one who can make a garment 
wholly, will disappear or become extinct as long as the immigration keeps on at the 
present rate. I know for a fact that young men in Germany, and I suppose in other 
countries, learn the trade for no other purpose than to emigrate to this country 
where they know they will find plenty of .work. I landed in this country on a Sun- 
day morning, and on Monday morning at ten o'clock I sat on the bench making 
trousers. There is a surplus of tailors in European countries owing to the fact that 
the employers conduct their own shops, and pay the journeymen by the week and 
even board them, thus having the privilege of hiring as many apprentices as they 
see fit, at least one to every journeyman, and getting three years' service for which 
they do not pay. The journeymen resent this and make it inconvenient for the 
boys and teach them as little as they can. This proves that there must be a sys- 
tem of apprenticing young men in the tailoring trade and that it must be restricted. 
This trade is barred to the American youth, and will be as long as prevailing con- 
ditions continue. 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 43 

The Union. 

No 195. Many of the trade unions are too strict in regard to apprentices, which 
may resnlt, in time, in the extinction of the all-round workman. 

No, 120. This question is entirely out of the trade unions' control. It is the 
Invention of machinery that divides labor so that one cannot master his work, and 
trade unions have nothing to do with it. 

No. 122. If the number is restricted or unrestricted it will work the same way* 
The system is not worked the same way as in Sweden where I came from. There 
three years W8is the limit for apprenticeship, and an apprentice had to pay a fee of 
say 160 crowns (Swedish money) for tutelage, and at the end of three years he had 
to make a garment as proof of his skill In the trade and present it to the industrial 
organization of the city, when he would receive a diploma from that body. That 
would declare him a journeyman. In Boston we have no prescribed length of time, 
but no man can go to a merchant tailor and receive a garment to make unless he 
can make that garment right so It will pass In the store. Restriction by unions as 
to this question may be all right In other trades, but In ours It would not. Most of 
the helpers In Boston came from the old country, and they have served their time 
as apprentices already. None but first-class men are employed In our trade. 

COTTON GOODS. 

The Employer. 

No. 17. Very much against the advancement of any young man of brains and 
ambition. My advice to young men Is to create some kind of business that will be 
free from trade unions, the curse of life as run nowadays. 

No. 16. The attitude of the trade unions on the restriction of apprentices Is 
an arbitrary Invasion of personal rights. It tends to restrict and prevent the de- 
velopment of young men into self-supporting and helpful citizens, and their attitude 
on this question and the labor problem generally Is the greatest menace at the present 
time to the prosperity of this country. 

The Union. 

No. 75. Apprentices should be restricted for the benefit of the manufacturer, 
also the tradesman. Too many cannot be taught in the proper way, nor can their 
work be inspected as it should be. For instance, if one loomfizer had five appren- 
tices, he could not do his work as he should, but as our rules are, one apprentice 
has five loomfixers to learn from, and he can get the different Ideas of those five 
men and should turn out to be a first-class workman. 

No. 149. If an apprentice Is taken In hand by the union, It Is certainly to the 
union's advantage to see that the man is well versed In his craft. I believe the 
present system to be superior to the old order of things, inasmuch as an apprentice 
of the present day Is more freely taught ; for Instance, In this union all men are In 
duty bound by our rules to assist an apprentice in every way possible to become 
skilled In his craft. Should he go to another mill where different looms are run, 
and different cloth is woven, the same conditions obtain, and he Is shown every- 
thing he may want to know. If this system is followed In other trades, I should 
say that the apprentice of the present day has a decided advantage. 

ELECTRICAL APPARATUS AND APPLIANCES. 

The Employer. 
No. 14. The number of apprentices should not be restricted by trade unions or 
other interests. We believe that such restriction retards the development of 
skilled workmen and will eventually result in the extinction of the all-round 
workmen. We recognize that the tendency of the age Is toward specialists. Yet 
We fall to see where restriction of apprentices would benefit them either directly or 
Indirectly. 



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44 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

The Union, 

No, 115. Tracle unions, properly condnoted, can and should control apprentices. 
Cannot see any detriment to young men, as far as my line goes. I believe that the 
union I belong to is composed of men intelligent enough to control the apprentice- 
ship question without detriment to the rising generation. 

No, 234. I think that in my line of business it will be a good thing not only for 
the young men but for the business in general. As our examination covers all 
branches, an apprentice has to make a study of his business, which makes him a 
better workman, and the class of work done is better. It brings the business up to 
a higher standard. There are not so many fires nor so many people killed by it, 
and people will not be so frightened to use electricity; therefore there will be 
more of it used, and the more there is used the more business there will be, and 
the more people will find employment at it. 

POOD PREPARATIONS. 

The Union. 
No. 189, Having the apprenticeship limited would keepthe scale of wages higher 
and attract a better class of young men to the trade, and cause the extinction of the 
all-round workman who knows a little of everything and not much of anything. 

FURNITURE. 

The Employer, 
No, 12. It will result in a decided injury to the young men, and will certainly- 
result in the extinction of the all-round workman. The bulk of our mechanics are 
of foreign birth. Owing to the restrictions placed upon the manufacturers by the 
unions, the apprentice is not allowed to serve a long enough time to become a com- 
petent journeyman, full pay being demanded for his services before he has thor- 
oughly learned the trade, which we think is decidedly wrong. 

HOSIERY AND KNIT GOODS. 

The Employer, 
No, 10, The widespread and constantly increasing use of si>ecial machinery is 
destroying the apprenticeship system, perhaps as much as the trade union. In this 
business one notices a great aversion on the part of the girls to do more than one 
thing ; they get used to one kind of work and one particular machine and if work 
becomes slack they prefer to go out rather than take up with some other kind of 
work. In my opinion the old-fashioned apprentice is doomed to extinction, also 
(and in consequence) the all-round workman as a class, 

IVORY, BONE, SHELL, AND HORN GOODS, ETC. 

The Union. 
No. 188, Will be beneficial to young men generally, inasmuch as it will gradu- 
ally force them into the various fields of labor to which they are best adapted. As 
to the extinction of the all-round workman, improved machinery and the methods 
employed by manufacturers are accomplishing this faster than any apprenticeship 
system could in textile and mechanical concerns. 

JEWELRY. 

The Employer. 
No. 52. The trade union has a tendency to lower the standard of mechanics 
and kill all ambition among the laboring classes, as it places the jackass on thB 
same plane as the thoroughbred racer. Its tendency is to pull down the expert to 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 45 

the level of the loafer ; and if trade unions are ever snccessfnl in accomplishing 
their ends, there can no longer be such a thing as an all-round old-fashioned work- 
man. Unionism, from a mechanical standpoint, is degrading in all its tendencies. 

No. 54. Formerly there were apprentices in nearly all the factories, but in 
recent years there have been very few. Possibly one reason for this is, many 
manufacture a specialty ; for instance, one manufactures collar buttons ; another, 
chains; another, goods for ladies' wear, brooches, lace pins, etc., and we, ourselves, 
make chains and lockets. So if an apprentice should come into one of these facto- 
ries with the thought of learning the jeweler's trade, he would not get an all-round 
education in the same ; or, in other words, he would have to work for a year or two 
in one and then change. Of course, the manufacturer naturally would discourage 
this change. There have been one or two young men in past years who have 
worked with us for a time, and in that way might be called apprentices, although 
there was no special agreement, only an understanding that they should be taught 
some of the rudiments of the business and work up to become journeymen. So you 
see in the jewelry business there has been a tendency toward the gradual extinction 
of the old-fashioned all-round workman of which you speak. 

We think it would be for the benefit of the trade in general, and for the young 
man, if he were to thoroughly learn the trade, even if in after years, when he be- 
came a journeyman, he should go to work in one of these shops where they make 
specialties. He would be a more valuable man and would command better wages. 

In regard to the trade unions would say that in our town, and in the neighboring 
town, there are no trade unions among the jewelry workers ; that is, none of any 
strength. There is one in each town, but it does not have the endorsement of the 
great majority of our people, and we doubt if it will in the immediate future. 

MALT LIQUORS. 

The Employer. 
No. 56. The attitude of the trade unions in restricting the number of appren- 
tices and the term of apprenticeship to two years is detrimental to the apprentice, 
and has a tendency to lead the employer not to employ apprentices. 

The Union. 

No. 85. The development of machinery no longer requires mechanics, but 
simply all-round men ; with a few exceptional industries it is different. 

No. 87, In our trade it will be a benefit for the future as well as the present. 
If not restricted in our trade, the majority of employees would be apprentices. 

MACHINES AND MACHINERY. 

The Employer. 

No, 6. The attitude of trade unions on the restriction of apprentices is detri- 
mental to the future benefit of young men, and also detrimental to growth of trades 
in this country, and we believe that it will result in the undevelopment and gradual 
extinction of the old-fashioned all-round workman if enforced. It is very difficult 
to-day to get the real old-fashioned all-round machinist, as we were able to eight 
or 10 years ago. This fact is resulting in specializing work, and keeping men in 
certain lines, and there is not much use now for the all-round machinist, who 
learned his trade formerly. 

No. 58. A restriction as to the number of apprentices and the attitude of the 
trade unions will result in extinction of the old-fashioned all-round workman, but 
I think the unions, especially the Moulders' Union of North America, are com- 
mencing to realize that their restriction of apprentices is detrimental to their in- 
terests. They are now considering the matter of allowing one to every four 
journeymen in place of one to every eight, as their laws now call for, and I think il 
they grant these concessions that the employers will receive it in the right spirit 



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46 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

and give these apprentices much better opportunities to learn an all-round trade 
than could be had if simply taught specialties 

No. 4. It will not be the trade unions that will destroy the apprentice and the 
old-fashioned all-round workman, but it will be the modern system of shop practice, 
that is, of keeping one man continually at one job. 

While we term the young men whom we employ "apprentices" they are not 
such in the old-fashioned definition of the term. These boys are free to go when- 
ever they please; we are free to discharge them if we choose to do so. The re- 
quirement now seems to be that the young man shall become expert in some 
particular class of work. He will drop all other things to devote his time ex- 
clusively to that. It will not be long, therefore, before the old-fashioned journey- 
man workman will be out of date and we shall always be able to find a man 
especially skilled in the particular service we happen to want. 

The Union. 

Ko. 156. The young man will be more thoroughly taught if there is a restriction 
placed on apprenticeship and we will have better journeymen in the future. 

No. 79. The old-fashioned all-round workman is hard to find, but it is caused 
in my opinion by the employer classifying the work and making specialists out of 
the men rather than all-round workmen. I do not believe the union restrictions 
will affect the case whatever. 

No. 236. In limiting the number of apprentices the best interests of the young 
men will be served, because they will have a better opportunity of learning the 
trade and of receiving the proper training to make them capable of becoming first- 
class mechanics. This will tend to keep the market properly equipped with first- 
class all-round workmen. 

METALS AND METALLIC GOODS. 

The Employer. 

No. 70. The members of this association believe that the union restriction upon 
the number of apprentices is unnatural, unjust, and short-sighted. They cannot 
condemn it too strongly. 

No. 47. I would say that we find it very difficult to secure first-class all-round 
mechanics in our line of business. Whether this is due to the restrictions placed 
upon the employment of apprentices or not, we are not in a position to say. 

No. 44. The restriction of apprentices is very detrimental to the future benefit 
of the young men, as are also other rules of unionism; for instance, piece-work. 
There is no incentive whatever for a young man to do his best in a union shop to- 
day, as the union says the poor workman must receive the same wages as the good. 
Unionism, as it is being run to-day, is bound to deteriorate the class of workmen in 
which this country has always taken the lead. 

The Union. 

No. 255. The apprenticeship system will be for the benefit of the young man 
in time to come. 

No. 269. The attitude of trade unions on the restriction of apprentices will 
have a tendency to make better mechanics. 

No. 201. It means the prevention of the overcrowding of a trade, though ap- 
prentices could be increased in some trades. 

No. 105. The attitude of trade unions on the restriction of apprentices is such 
that if the apprentice system were carried out according to our constitution, we 
would have more competent workmen. To be a practical mechanic a man's knowl- 
edge must not be limited to one part of a machine. For instance, if I were to 
make locomotive driving wheels for 10 years or less and were taken off that job and 
given a locomotive saddle and cylinder, I would not know how to go about it ; con- 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 47 

seqnently, the employer, knowing that the driving wheel was my limit, would say 
"this man is not capahle of doing any other class of work ; he will not leave here, 
therefore I will lower his wages." 

Ko. 148, It will be a good thing for the young men if the restriction on appren- 
tices is never allowed to be lowered from what it is now, because the minute a firm 
sees a chance to replace a journeyman getting $2.50 or $2.75 a day, with a boy 
that he can pay anywhere from $0.75 to 31.00 a day, he will do it every time. If 
there were no restriction in this matter, you would find places where they would 
employ about two journeymen and all the rest apprentices. Taking all things into 
consideration, I would most respectfully say that it is for his benefit, and every one 
else working at the trade, that it is so. Wherever you find a concern that has no 
restriction on the number of apprentices it employs, you will find the men it turns 
out as journeymen are very poor indeed. I speak from experience on this question. 
I have worked for concerns of this character and have always seen the same result, 
viz. : that the employees never get the chance to learn their trade half right. 

PAPER. 

The Employer, 

No, 49, We feel that the attitude of the trade unions on the restriction of ap- 
prentices is an injury to the character of young men who wish to enter the business. 
If they can have no opportunity of learning the trade, they have nothing to look 
forward to, and lose a large part of the incentive they might have to faithful and 
efficient work. It tends to extinguish ambition in young men, as there is very 
little for them to look forward to if the chance to rise and to learn the business is 
to be denied them. 

It seems to be the intention of the trade unions to keep the helpers employed 
about the machines from assisting the journeymen in any part of the work which 
would tend to g^ve them familiarity with the handling of the machines, intention- 
ally keeping them from acquiring knowledge or experience in their working. Of 
course, limiting the number of apprentices so strictly tends to enforce the em- 
ployment of unsteady or incompetent workmen simply because no better can be 
obtained. 

PRINTING AND PUBLISHING. 

The Employer. 

No, 42. It will result, if followed, in a shortage of really skilled workmen and 
in the necessary employment of poorly-fitted men, who are half taught in small, 
cheap offices. The all-round workman will not be found to any considerable extent 
anyway, as an apprentice now seldom learns but one branch of the trade, i.e., either 
composition or presswork. 

No. 61, At present it is very difficult to get even the number of apprentices 
allowed by unions, as good boys seem to have an aversion to learning trades. 
Unless more apprentices are taught there will soon be a dearth of competent work- 
men. The old-fashioned, all-round workman is about extinct in the printing trade. 

The Union, 

No, 143, Apprentices should be restricted, as it will be for the future benefit of 
the young men ; an unrestricted apprenticeship will surely lead to the extinction 
of the old-fashioned all-round workman, as the boys will be thoroughly trained in 
in a certain branch only. 

No. 140. By limiting the number of apprentices on a ratio of one to six journey- 
men, the apprentice has more opportunities to learn from different workmen and 
become more proficient. Have worked where two journeymen and six apprentices 
were employed, and it had to be a bright boy who could pick up the trade, because 
journeymen were too busy to show boys anything, and the boys were too apt to get 
slack and take less interest in their work. 



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48 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

No. 98, In the electrotyping business the restricting of the number of appren- 
tices would work for the best interest of the apprentice, as it would compel the 
employer to give each apprentice an opportunity to learn the trade in a proper 
manner. At the present time a boy is taken into an office with the understanding 
that he is to learn the trade. There being no agreement made as to the length of 
time he is to serve, advantage is generally taken of the boy, with the result that 
when he reaches his majority he has not been allowed to master the details of the 
business, and when he approaches the employer for more money is told that he is 
not worth it. If the term of apprenticeship required by my organization were lived 
up to, both the employer and the employee would be benefited by it, as each would 
know what was expected of the other. 

No. 249. Our union seems willing to give the boys all the chance possible, but 
the boy learning his trade in a city can never become an all-round man. The 
country is the best place to learn the trade, for there the boy gets a chance at all 
kinds of work, and if he comes to the city to work can " catch on ** to most any 
part. I do not think the unions are to blame for this, but rather conditions. A 
boy learning (or rather serving four years) in a newspaper office knows very little 
about the printing business. One office in this city has kept boys over three years 
of the time on proof press and correcting, and this union has been obliged to extend 
the boy's time which he must work before receiving his working card. In other 
words, the boy knew nothing about the business after " serving" four years' time, 
and never could in that office — and it is a large one. 

No. 228. The attitude of the trade unions on the restriction of apprentices is 
for the benefit of thd apprentice and to perpetuate the old-fashioned all-round work- 
man. Many unions have been and are trying to get the employers to agree to laws 
defining the grade and class of work that apprentices must be taught from year to 
year, so that at the end of their apprenticeship they may be thorough all-round 
workmen. The employers, however, cry that we are trying to dictate to them how 
they shall run their business, which has caused many unions to drop the matter. 
Their specializing system can produce nothing but a poor all-roxmd man, while the 
one above quoted, I think you will agree, will produce the opposite. Then if they 
see that the journeyman is an •* expert " at a certain branch they could put him on 
it without doing him an injustice. 

RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT. 

The Union. 
No, 183, It is a bad thing for the young man to stop him from learning a trade 
for which he has a taste. I presume you mean by the " old-fashioned all-round 
workman " the man who has spent the regulation time in learning that trade he 
has decided to follow. If so, I should say that the attitude of the trade unions in 
restricting apprentices would have a tendency to eliminate such a workman. If 
he were not allowed to learn the trade in the old-fashioned way, he might have re- 
course to some other method, the so-called trade school, for instance, but would 
never become such a competent workman as in the former instance. 

RUBBER AND ELASTIC GOODS. 

The Union, 
No. 132. We do not exclude learners when there is any demand for them, but 
we claim they should have equal pay with others, as a measure of self-protection. 
Our experience is that the apprentice system injures the ordinary workman, as 
apprentices are kept at work where journeymen are laid off. We think this system 
is better for the old-fashioned workmen and does not retard the development of 
the young men at all. Learners are put to work on inferior grades of goods and 
acquire skill on finer grades by evolutionary process. 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 49 

SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS AND APPLIANCES, 

The Employer, 
No, 40. It is bad and selfish. A restriction will result in the undevelopment 
and gradual extinction of the old-fashioned all-round workman. 
No, 41, Individual excellence is dwarfed by restrictions. 

SHIPBTHLDING. 

The Employer. 

No. 39, We are opposed to the attitude of trade unions as restricting the num- 
ber of apprentices to be employed. We think it is a great injustice to prevent, in 
any way, young men from learning a trade. 

No, 37, The effort of the trade unions to restrict the number of apprentices is 
paralleled by their opposition to the use of labor-saving machinery and the restric- 
tion of output. If it is successful it will inflict great hardship on American boys, 
and it will force employers to use foreign-trained skilled labor. It will also force 
the employer to extend the use of handy men or the men trained to perform only 
one operation. A labor union advocate who was recently discussing the restriction 
of the number of apprentices with the writer said, in answer to the objection that 
this policy would cut off the supply of skilled men at a later date, '* We don't care 
anything about the future ; we are thinking of the present.** 

STONE. 

The Employer. 

No, 33, It will be for the future benefit of the young men. 

No, 35. It will result in the undevelopment of the young men, and the gradual 
extinction of the old-fashioned all-round workman. 

No. 34. Will not be enough young men in the business to replace the old men 
as they drop out, let alone increasing the number of journeymen at the trade. 

No, 36. Not enough men learning the trade to fill the places of men dropping 
out, making a shortage in the supply. It is almost impossible for a native-bom 
man to learn the trade, owing to the fact that immigrants can join the union with- 
out serving their time if two of their countrymen vouch for them. 

No, 72, We think that the restriction of the number of apprentices by trade 
unions will result in the gradual extinction of the all-round workman. We think 
it is a most disastrous policy, tending to make a large number of poor workmen. 

In regard to our woodworking shop, there is no recognized system or agreement, 
but the arrangement is that a boy goes to work at the rate of 10 cents an hour for 
the first year, and in the course of the next four years he becomes a full-fledged 
journeyman, but without any apprentice agreement. 

The Union. 

No, 147, Selfishness rules a great many of our laboring men. Every boy ought 
to learn a trade if he wishes to do so, but it is hard to get a chance in any of the 
trades in which $3 to $5 per day is paid. There ought to be some law to regulate 
the apprenticeship system. Yoxmg men ought to be encouraged to become useful 
citizens by being allowed to learn a trade. Their numbers should not be restricted. 
The supply of labor and demand will regulate that. Many of our laboring men 
cannot afford to educate their sons, they cannot start them in business, they cannot 
give them a chance to learn a trade — what are the boys to do? Beg, steal, tramp, 
work a little once in a while at the meanest kind of labor, with a lot of Asiatics 
for companions? No, I say give every boy a chance. 

No, 200. Under present conditions while the number is limited still the appren- 
tice is not protected as he ought to be. He is compelled to serve three years, but 



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50 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

the grade of work he is to take up is not defined. The employer can give him any- 
work he sees fit and the union does not interfere. While some employers teach 
their trade thoroughly, others use the apprentice for cutting the commonest kind of 
work, never thinking of his future. Within the last few years the union is placing 
more protection around the apprentice, and the result will he far hetter than the old 
system and will produce a much hetter class of workmen. I would go still further in 
this matter. In our cities we have free evening drawing schools. I would compel 
all apprentices to take a course in mechanical drawing (where such schools exist) , 
the employer to furnish the drawing instruments throughout the course, the same to 
he returned at the expiration of the term together with the tools they work with. 
It is surprising how few apprentices take advantage of these schools in our city. 
They never think what a great henefit it is to a mechanic to learn to read and 
make working drawings. 

No, 212, The restriction of the numher of apprentices by trade unions is for 
the benefit of the young men themselves. In many cases where there are a number 
of these they get little chance to work directly at the trade, the employer using 
them as " lumpers" or laborers, as they get but 86 cents or ^1 a day the first year, 
where a regular laborer would get $1.75 or $2 a day. Again, where there are a 
large number of apprentices and few journeymen, the employer puts the appren- 
tices on a certain kind of plain work and keeps them on it till they can do as much 
as a journeyman in about a year, if they are strong young fellows, which they gen- 
erally are. The apprentice is getting small pay, and as he is kept on the same class 
of rough, plain work, be is able to do as much as most journeymen on that certain 
kind of work, and as few journeymen are hired as possible. What few journeymen 
there are, take the work from the apprentice, after the plain work is done, and 
finish it. In the monumental business the apprentices can do three-fourths of the 
work under that system. Thus it is easy to see where the journeyman is injured. 
But as to the apprentice, he is kept on the same class of work nearly all his appren- 
ticeship, and when his time is up and he is supposed to get a journeyman's pay he 
is discharged and a new lot of apprentices are put on to go over the same thing. 
Thus the apprentice who has finished his term has to start out after serving an 
apprenticeship of three years, not able to hold his end up with the average journey- 
man, often being driven from one place to another for two or three years more 
before he can learn enough of the trade so that the average employer will keep 
him any length of time. Quincy turns out hundreds of this kind of apprentice. 
It is for the benefit of the journeymen, the apprentice, and the employer who has 
to hire him afterwards as a journeyman, that trade unions should restrict the num- 
ber of apprentices, as the apprentice has a better chance to learn his trade, as in our 
business a man is liable to be given any kind or class of work when he lets himself 
as a journeyman. 

TOBACCO AND CIGARS. 

The Employer. 

No. 32. Our opinion is, they should allow more apprentices. We think our 
class of labor will be handicapped in the future. 

No. 29. I consider it unfortunate for young men, for, on account of the restric- 
tions of the union, it is an exception to find a factory, where union cigar workers 
are employed, that employs any apprentices. 

iVb. 30. In our trade it apparently makes but little difference, as their rules 
have been in existence a great many years, and there are more cigarmakers to be 
had than employment can be found for. 

The Union. 
No. 96. The attitude of the trade unions has nothing to do with the gradual 
extinction of the all-round workman. The subdivision of labor, and the introduc- 
tion of machinery have driven him from the field. Less skill is required. 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 51 

No. 261, I firmly believe a fair restriction on the number of apprentices in any 
trade is for the benefit of all persons learning that trade. It produces better work- 
men, gives steadier employment, reduces the number of tramps in that trade, and 
prevents a lot of young men from taking up a trade for which they are not natu- 
rally adapted just because employment happens to be plenty and well paid at the 
time they want to start in to work. It is a check on the tendency of the times to 
teach a boy one particular part of the trade. In factories where we have power to 
enforce our apprentice laws an apprentice must be taught the whole trade. 

WOODEN" GOODS. 

The Union. 

No. 81. In our opinion when a trade is protected it will result in benefiting 
the apprentices as well as the journeymen, and will tend also to make them better 
workmen. 

No. 80. We believe it beneficial, as the tendency of the employer is to have an 
apprentice instructed in a certain line of work and then keep him doing the same 
over and over, thereby preventing him from acquiring a knowledge of all branches. 

WOOLEN GOODS. 

The Employer. 

No. 3. Very unjust to the young men. Forces them to be ordinary workmen, 
where otherwise they would have a trade. 

No. 2. We have no old-fashioned all-round workmen under 60 years of age. 
Those whom we employ learned their trades before unions became general. No 
first-class workman is a union man ; he may belong to a union. Unions are a bad 
thing for young men, as they tend to destroy ambition. 

Below will be found some opinions voiced by other trade 
union oflScials as to the regulation of apprentices : 

Barbers — The Union. 

No. 166. The restriction of apprentices in my trade is certainly for the benefit 
of young men, and develops an up-to-date workman and not the old-fashioned 
Jack-of-all-trades. The old-fashioned workman, who worked at every trade and 
knew but very little about any one, would be out of place now among our progressive 
barbers. 

No. 251. I think it tends to the better development of the apprentice where only 
one is permitted in a shop, for if several were permitted and the employers were in- 
clined to have them (as they would in the smaller cities and towns) the country 
would soon be overrun with unemployed barbers, who could not get employment be- 
cause the apprentices would work so much cheaper. The barbers, who had already 
served their apprenticeship, would not be the first-class workmen that they are 
under the present system, because they would not have the necessary experience. 

No. 232. It will inevitably prove a future benefit to young men from the fact that 
it stands as a protection to whatever trade they may be inclined to pursue. By re- 
stricting craftdom to persons duly qualified by a reasonable apprenticeship, we thus 
prevent persons from engaging in a trade that they are unfitted for, and causing 
tradesmen clothed with years of experience to walk the streets of our cities and 
towns in idleness. Restriction also prevents journeymen from being substituted by 
practically unskilled workmen, who have but a superficial knowledge of any trade, 
and who offer their services for less wages than good workmen, a fact which is 
frequently taken advantage of by narrow-minded and unscrupulous employers, thus 
bringing about a state of affairs which positively tends towards the degeneration of 



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52 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

American standards of livelihood. It will be an incentive to young men to give an 
apprenticeship to a trade that is protected by reasonable apprenticeship restrictions, 
for they will then feel more snre than at present of permanent employment and less 
conflict with inferior and unskilled workmen who now stand as a constant menace 
to nearly all crafts. It will inspire a feeling of pride in the hearts of all young 
men who can show an apprenticeship certificate at some trade, and who know that 
that trade is constituted of trained men who can better comprehend the value of 
their skill, and, with less difficulty than is generally the case now, establish a more 
uniform scale of living wages. It will tend to the better development of all crafts- 
men and gradual promotion of the old-fashioned all-round workman. 

Bartenders — The Union. 
No, 197, To restrict apprentices will be injurious to the rising generation. 

Car Conductors — The Union* 
No, 138, The restriction of apprentices will be for the future benefit of young 
men. 

Locomotive Firemen — The Union, 

No. 238, It seems to me that trade unions should know about how many ap- 
prentices they could handle so as to teach them every point in the business, and I 
am sure they desire to be fair. It certainly means a great deal of benefit to the 
young men, for when they get their trade learned they will have a chance to develop 
it and will profit by not having to compete with a large number of others who, 
perhaps, would be willing to work cheaper than they could afford to. As for the 
old-fashioned workman, there does not seem to be any need of him now. There is 
quite an opportunity for self-development if a man desires to know it all. 

Longshoremen — The Union, 
No, 106, With the wide-spread use of labor-saving machinery in a majority of 
ttades, restriction is necessary in order to afford the journeyman an opportunity to 
earn sufficient to maintain his family. The head of the family being able to earn 
a sufficiency, he is in a better position to look after and guide the young man into 
self-supporting employment and consequent development. As to the gradual ex- 
tinction of the old-fashioned all-round workman, the machine and mechanical 
appliances are already doing this despite the attitude of the labor organization, 
which is to preserve the old-time skill of the handicraftsman and to elevate the 
standard of workmanship. Those who wish the old-time skill retained by the 
workman are also handicapped by a merciless competition in all trades (hand or 
mechanical), which demands speed and quantity of labor performed as against 
quality of goods. However, it is useless to grow pessimistic over the question, as 
there will always be a more or less steady supply of experienced craftsmen from the 
country towns and smaller cities; and the young men in large cities and manufac- 
turing centres who are desirous of learning some trade will always find an opening 
in the mechanical trades. 

Retail Clerks — The Union, 
No, 202, Let as many serve as wish . I believe in a certain period of service 
before becoming journeymen. 

Sewer Workers— The Union, 
No, 119, Detrimental to both the young man and also to the trade union. 

Stationary Engineers — The Union, 
No, 193. I am a disbeliever in unions of any trade or profession, especially those 
where walking delegates are employed. Such unions are the greatest injury to 
progress of anything we have to contend with in the various industries of our noble 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 53 

country, and I believe the only true solution is education in the line of trade or 
profession one chooses to follow. Then when the employer finds he has secured 
the services of such for his factory or shop he will appreciate their worth, and no 
grievances will ever occur, and it will always be harmony among them. 

Steam Engineers — T?ie Union. - 
Ko, 139. It will certainly be a benefit in the future as those who learn a trade 
will know how to do their work well, and it will, to a certain extent, result in the 
extinction of the old-fashioned Jack-of-all-trades and good at none ; but as most of 
these men are bom mechanics, there is little danger of their becoming extinct. 

Stationary Firemen — The Union, 
No, 213. Trade unions are wrong on this question. The number of apprentices 
should not be restricted except in rare cases. 

No, 121. Stop the importation of labor or restrict immigration. Restriction will 
result in the undevelopment and the gradual extinction of the old-fashioned all- 
round workman. 

Teamsters — The Union. 
No. 107. I think it a good idea to give youth a show. 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works, of Philadelphia, Pa., em- 
ploying nearly 11,000 workmen, has made a complete change 
in its apprenticeship system, departing entirely from the special- 
izing idea and reviving the old indenture system, with such new 
features as experience has shown to be advisable. The follow- 
ing statement by Mr. Samuel M. Vauclain, superintendent of 
this establishment, made before the Engineers' Club of Phila- 
delphia, and published in the proceedings of the Engineers' 
Club for January, 1902, sets forth so clearly and forcibly the 
reasons for the adoption of this system on the part of this great 
company and the method pursued with the apprentices that it 
is worth quoting here at length : 

In handling several thousand apprentice boys it became apparent to me 
that no matter how well the apprentice was taught in the workshops, or 
how much he was encouraged to go to the various night schools in our city, 
such as the Franklin or Spring Garden Institute, the Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association, Drexel, or others for the technical part of his education, 
we found that he desired something to show that he had learned the art or 
that he had served a specific time at this art. In other words, he was just 
as anxious to get his diploma as the young man who graduates from the 
university, or from Sibley or Stevens, or some such institution, and in my 
opinion was just as much entitled to it. It became apparent to me also that 
if we were to remain successful in competition with the world we would 
have to get to work at once and systematically educate our apprentices, not 
only in so far as the handicraft is concerned, but that they should have a 
certain amount of technical knowledge to go with it, and that that technical 
knowledge should go hand in hand with the manual training that they were 



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54 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

receiving in the shops. Very naturally the thought occurred to me, " What 
are we going to do with the great unwashed — the boys who can not go to 
school — the boys who are turned out of the grammar schools, perhaps, be- 
fore they have barely entered them ? " The parents must put those boys to 
work, and, fortunately for us, the laws of Pennsylvania relieve us of this 
mass of humanity — poorly trained, poorly educated, and with the greed of 
gain, the only thought their parents have in placing them at work. The 
law forbids the employment of any boy under 16 years of age, and over 13, 
only when his parents go before a magistrate and get a permit; conse- 
quently we are able to keep out of our workshops all boys under 16, except 
those who are the sons of widows and who must have employment some- 
where. Those boys we employ as messengers, and keep them and train 
them and bring them along until such time as we can put them to a trade. 
Our idea in establishing three grades of apprentices was to take care of the 
three grades of boys that come to us. First, the boys of the masses — the 
boys of ordinary education — very ordinary education indeed ; these boys 
we compel to remain with us four years. We require that they shall go 
outside at night to some of the many night schools and take a one-year's 
course in elementary geometry and algebra in order to get a slight knowl- 
edge of them. The second and third years they must attend drawing 
school. They must take a two-year's course in drawing outside of the 
workshops. At the expiration of the four years we give these boys a bonus 
and we discharge them from our employ. They get a diploma — their 
indenture is their diploma ; their bonus is their reward and the wherewith 
to go elsewhere and seek employment. Now the high school boy is a well 
educated boy. I defy any young man of eighteen to go before an employer 
with a better education than those boys who come to us from our Philadel- 
phia High School. He has a good knowledge of geometry and many of 
the higher branches of mathematics ; he knows something of mechanical 
drawing — enough to go on with the work ; therefore, we omit with this 
boy the preliminary course in elementary algebra and geometry, and we 
prescribe that for two years he must attend night school in mechanical 
drawing in order to perfect himself, in order to learn to express his 
thoughts upon paper as he absorbs ideas in the workshop. We also give 
this young man a bonus, and we only require three years of service from 
him on account of the superior education he has when he comes to us. The 
superior education enables us to grasp more quickly the needs — the place 
to put him — and he more or less readily absorbs the instructions given 
him from his immediate superiors through the superintendent of the shop. 
The bonus this young man gets is |100 in place of the J125 of his more 
unskilled companion. This f 100 we think is sufScient to enable him to go 
elsewhere and secure employment, and we are never ashamed to let one 
of those apprentices go for that. He always show« up well. The third 
man to take care of is the graduate of our universities — the ordinary me- 
chanical engineer who comes to us not quite so green as grass so far as 
mechanical handicraft is concerned. He is willing to get down to the hard- 
est work we have in our shop, and he works at it like a steam engine. He 
has all the technical knowledge that is necessary. He has it, but he does 
not know how to use it. We encourage him in this manner : We can not 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 55 

indenture him, being a man, but we make a specific contract with him for 
two years and pay him enough to keep body and soul together. We give 
him 13 cents an hour for the first year, and IC cents an hour for the second 
year, and a clean certificate at the end of that time. We have not had a 
man of that description for that length of time who has not been lifted out 
of the position he had contracted for and is enjoying a much more remuner- 
ative position and in the line of promotioju. Now, it is from these men that 
we must fill the superior oflices in our workshop, and these boys we pro- 
mote. The man or boy who has determined to get to the top, and will 
bum his candle at night to gain the knowledge that his more favored com- 
panion has received in a better institution of learning than he has attended, 
also gains his reward. The third boy we must have to fill the ordinary 
ranks in the workshops, and the better educated we can have the ordinary 
rank and file in our workshops, the better chance we will have of compet- 
ing with our foreign manufacturers, the better chance we will have of ex- 
tending the markets of American Aianufactures throughout the world, and 
it is only by this that we can do so. You have asked me why we can afford 
to do this — why we can afford to turn away from the doors every year 
several hundred young men. We do not expect to keep them all. We will 
keep the better ones that we come across from time to time. We promote 
them, so that their ambition will permit them to stay with us. Have you 
not already seen the point ? Every one of these men that go forth from an 
establishment of this kind will sing its praises forever. They will shout 
just as lustily for the Baldwin Locomotive Works as they have done for 
Yale, Harvard, or the university, or any other institution they have left. 
You will have an advertising medium that can not be surpassed by any- 
thing, and, further than that, you will have established in your own work- 
shop a set of men that will be invaluable — that you can never hire in the 
open market. 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works do not intend to give night instruction. 
They do intend to impart the technical knowledge. We depend upon the 
various night schools established throughout the city, and we pray for 
the establishment of more and better night schools to give instruction for ' 
that portion of the training of the apprentices. The manufacturer has the 
commercial side of the question to deal with. He can impart the commer- 
cial side of the business in connection with the technical training. He must 
be a manual student commercially. He must be able to make that work 
pay. He must be able to get it out for a certain sum of money, and he= 
must be able to get it out well for that money, because the better his product 
is the more work >vill come into that workshop ; and, therefore, if the fore- 
men, or the superintendent, or the owners, or the managers of these manu- 
facturing institutions will give their time and attention to the handicraft — 
the manual training — they certainly should expect to get the technical por- 
tion for the work of their students outside. Now, in order to make a scheme 
of this sort successful, one must make a business of it. You can not hand 
these boys over to the tender mercies of a foreman, because it is not one 
out of fifty who can take a boy and who can say to himself, " That boy is 
perfect on that work ; here, give him another planer ; there is no use keep- 
ing that boy on that work any longer.'' No, he will keep him there until 



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56 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

the superintendent says, "You must not keep that boy there any longer; 
you are doing him an injustice." In order to avoid such a condition of 
affairs, I felt that we should have a superintendent of apprentices, a man 
whose business was to look after the apprentices, not only in the shop but 
out of the shop — a man who would see that he is taken care of, and see that 
the foreman does not take advantage ; but as fast as the boy learns he must 
be pushed along. We hire him for what he learns from us for the future, 
and we must have that boy pushed along so that he can learn, so that he 
can absorb everything that is capable of being absorbed in that shop. If 
ha is not capable of being pushed along so fast, he is pushed along slowly 
and more care is taken of him. We do not want to allow that boy to sink 
down into disappointed youth. We just want him when he is 21 to be able 
to work and to go on and keep on working with irresistible energy. Now, 
this superintendent of apprentices must do that work, and he must fiirther 
see that the boy carries out his side of the contract — that he attends these 
night schools. He must see where he goes; he must examine into the 
matter ; he must see the boy's teacher or professor, and he must report 
upon that boy's progress, so that we can form a determination of the value 
of this apprentice from a technical standpoint. We find it very difficult to 
provide for a certain branch of this work, but great effort is being made to 
carry it on for any number of boys. The public schools are taking an 
interest ; everybody will take an interest in it after a while, when it becomes 
known. It is the right policy, if we can only interest manufacturers to 
establish a system of this kind All those interested will find all they can 
do to keep up with the other end of the business if the manufacturer will 
take care of the handicraft; and until that time does come, if we can not 
obtain the technical education for these young men outside at night, as we 
should, the only thing to do is to establish an educational institution of our 
own and take these boys so many hours from work and say, " You must go 
there and receive it." Insist upon it. It does not cost much. You can get 
a good educator for $3,000 a year, and what is f 3,000 when you divide it 
up among a thousand boys ? Three dollars for each boy. And if those 
boys are worth anything they will not only earn their wages, but they will 
earn a great deal more. They will earn the money you might spend upon 
their education, and in the years to come they will be grateful for the trouble 
you have taken to make better men of them. 

The superintendent of the Brown & Sharpe Manufacturing 
Company of Providence, R. I., stated that this company had 
always maintained a system of apprenticeship, though the sys- 
tem now in force had existed only since 1897 ; that in an es- 
tablishment of this kind, engaged as it is in the manufacture 
of machine tools of the utmost accuracy and fineness, men of 
the highest degree of skill and proficiency are needed in all 
departments. The superintendents, foremen, and higher class 
of mechanics must have not only a thorough practical training 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 57 

in the shop, but, in order to understand and overcome the many 
intricate problems which constantly arise in connection with 
their work, they must possess also a certain amount of theo- 
retical and technical knowledge which, can not be acquired in 
the shop. 

The tendency of the times in manufacturing is such that all machinists 
and mechanics who are trained in the shops only, in the ordinary course of 
business, become specialists and never attain a thorough, all-round knowl- 
edge of their trade. If a man or boy in a machine shop does particularly 
good work with any one machine or at any one operation the employer can 
not afford, under the severe competition now existing in the industries, to 
shift him from said machine or operation and give him work of another 
kind simply for the purpose of teaching him the whole trade and having 
him become skilled in all of its processes. The consequence is that as a 
rule the workman passes his working life performing one operation only 
and never acquires a complete knowledge of his trade. Even if this con- 
dition did not exist, and it were possible so to shift a workman about that 
he could learn all the operations carried on in the industry, it would be a 
wasteful method, and when all had been learned that could be in this man- 
ner it would be mostly knowledge of a practical kind only, and the technical 
and scientific knowledge necessary to make the thorough craftsman would 
still be wanting. This knowledge can be supplied only by some form of 
school training. 

The all-round, thoroughly trained mechanic is needed in moderate num- 
bers, and the best way to supply this need is to begin with the apprentice 
and put him through a systematic, theoretical, and practical course of 
instruction, and this is the plan upon which our system of apprenticeship is 
conducted. 

The apprentices are under the immediate charge of a superintendent of 
apprentices, whose sole duty it is to look after them and arrange and super- 
intend their instruction. The shop instruction covers a period of four years 
and embraces six months' work on the lathe, six months' work on the mill- 
ing machine, four months' work on the planer, six weeks' work on the drill 
press, three weeks' work in scraping, six months' work in assembling parts, 
six months' work in erecting machines, and the balance of the term is spent 
in the drafting rooms and in general shop practice at operations not speci- 
fied above. This brings the apprentices under the instruction, at one time 
or another, of every foreman in the establishment and enables them to 
acquire a thorough knowledge of every detail. During the entire period of 
apprenticeship one hour every two weeks is devoted to a lecture or a dis- 
cussion upon some subject bearing upon the trade, and to assist the appren- 
tices in their studies the company maintains a circulating library of technical 
works. 

In addition to the regular shop work, the apprentices are also obliged to 
take a course in the evening classes of the Rhode Island School of Design 
in Providence or the course in mechanical engineering and drawing of the 



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58 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

International Correspondence Schools, of Scranton, Pa. Our apprentices 
come firom all parts of the country, and many have come from Europe to 
get the benefit of the training afforded by our system. 

Thus far our experience shows that the young men who have completed 
the full term of apprenticeship under this system are vastly superior to the 
ordinary shop-trained mechanics, and wherever they go their technical 
training, combined with the knowledge of our system of manufacturing, 
enables them to secure better positions and higher wages than the average 
mechanic. The majority rise to responsible positions as foremen and 
superintendents, and many of them have become members of firms and 
manufacturing corporations. 

Mr. Terrence V. Powderly, at one time the Grand Master 
Workman of the Knights of Labor, may be said to have been 
the first to suggest trade and technical education. In 1888, in 
an article entitled * ' Settle the Apprenticeship Question by 
Inaugurating Industrial Schools," he said : 

From a paper before me I take the following paragraph. It appears to 
furnish food for reflection and study : 

A very serious question confronts the American youth under the existing re- 
strictive system of apprenticeship. What is to become of the millions of boys who» 
having finished going to school, are looking about for something to do? 

This subject is worthy of the best thought of the most profound thinkers 
of our time, and I make bold to discuss it briefly, in the hope that my words, 
which, at best, will serve but as an introduction, may cause others to take 
up the question itself for discussion. 

Have we a restrictive system of apprenticeship in the United States? 
I fail to find it in operation in many of the trades and callings, and in many 
others it exists only in name. Its effect in limiting the number of appren- 
tices is scarcely felt in the trade. It is frequently urged that the restrictive 
system of apprenticeship is driving the American youth from the skilled 
callings ; that the native born is being driven from the workshop to make 
room for the workmen of foreign birth. It is held by many that the trade 
union is to blame for this state of affairs ; that the American labor organi- 
zation is inimical to the interests of the American workman. When the 
mechanic worked steadily f»)r six days in the week to perform a certain 
amount of work by hand, it was necessary for him to know the use of tools ; 
in order to fit himself for the performance of such a task he had to bind 
himself to the employer for a term of years, during which time he was 
taught the rudiments of his trade. He worked for a pittance in the hope 
of one day being able to take his place at the bench as a journeyman. It 
made no difference whether he learned the machinist, blacksmith, molding, 
cooper, or shoemaking trade, they were all hard to acquire, and the me- 
chanic of twenty or fifteen years ago had to learn the whole trade in order 
to take his proper place by the side of other mechanics when out of his time 
and upon the road as a journeyman. At present it is a waste of time to bind 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 59 

a boy to any of these trades, or to any particular trade, for the reason that 
they are all subdivided to such an extent that men are set to work on spe- 
cial pieces on entering the workshop, and remain in that particular subdi- 
vision during their term of service. The chief aim of the employer in 
engaging apprentices is to secure the assistance of cheap help on work that 
it is not necessary to employ competent mechanics to perform. The oppo- 
sition of the mechanic to a number of apprentices is that the market may 
not find too many craftsmen in search of employment ; under such condi- 
tions wages must have a downward tendency. 

An apprentice in 1888 does not enter upon the trade as the apprentice of 
1868 did. In 1858 the apprentice learned all of the " arts and mysteries " of 
the trade, while the beginner of to-day is placed at a machine and is apt to 
be kept at it during his entire term of apprenticeship. If he is skilful and 
manipulates that machine to good advantage, he is more likely to be of 
better service to his employer than if he were allowed to take turns at all 
the different branches of the trade ; but when his term expires he is of but 
little use as a mechanic, for should he apply to another employer for a sit- 
uation, he may not be lucky enough to find employment at a machine simi- 
lar to the one at which he served his term, and if he is not so employed, he 
will have to wait till a vacancy occurs, or tramp. During the period from 
1859 to 1875 trade unionism flourished more than at any other time in our 
history ; it was during that period that the greatest opposition to an unlim- 
ited number of apprentices was manifested by the mechanics of the United 
States. During that same period the employers of labor learned to go to 
foreign lands to secure the services of mechanics who would engage to take 
the places of the American workmen. The employer was not forced to go 
abroad for workmen, but he regarded the trade society as a foreign institu- 
tion, and would not recognize it in dealing with his employees. He was 
. inconsistent, however, in going to Europe for workmen who were none the 
less foreign because he imported them. 

During the past ten years, which may justly be styled the decade of the 
iron man, the importation of foreign workmen by employers was practised 
on a most extensive scale. During this same period trade unionism lan- 
guished in the United States and played but a small part in dictating to 
employers how many apprentices they should engage ; yet employers im- 
ported foreign laborers in such numbers as to arouse the American work- 
men to a sense of danger, when they began to rebuild their shattered 
organizations, in which work they were encouraged by the Knights of La- 
bor, the latter organization having secured the passage of a law which, 
although frequently violated by employers, has for its object the prohibition 
of the importation of foreign labor under contract. The argument that 
trade unionism is to blame for the presence of so many foreign born me- 
chanics in our workshops is not worthy of consideration. The truth plainly 
stated is, that every foreigner who is to-day at work in the workshops of 
the United States is here because he believed he could improve his condi- 
tion by coming, or is here because he was induced to come by some agent, 
or bureau, in the interest of the employers of labor in the United States. 

It is neither profitable nor encouraging to l^arn a trade when the chances 
are that some morning the mechanic will awake to find a machine standing 



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60 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

in his place doing the work which he performed the day before. Inventions 
have been introduced so rapidly and extensively during the last ten years 
that many trades have been almost revolutionized. This rapid introduction 
of machinery has had a tendency to depress wages ; the reduction of wages 
and the lack of security in workshop management have been the cause of 
sending many a boy to college who would have gone into the workshop 
after passing through the routine of the common public school. 

Americans believe that they live in the best country in the world ; the 
workman being imbued with that sentiment believes that he should receive 
the best wages in the world. The employer, who may be as proud of his 
country as the workman, when it comes to the question of employing an 
American because he is a countryman, or securing the services of cheap 
workmen, will cast his lot with the foreign workman and the dollars-and- 
cents side of the question. The foreign workman, not knowing what his 
services ought to bring in this land, will step into the shoes of the American 
workman who received from 12.50 to $3 a day, and be recompensed at a 
rate not exceeding $1.50 or f 1.75 a day. Having lived where it was neces- 
sary to practise the most rigid economy, he brings his economical habits 
and ideas with him, and for a time he can exist on the wages paid him. 

We also find the manufactories of the United States being operated as 
though they were the property of one management. The tendency is to 
bring them under one common head through the agency of the "trust." 
Independence on the part of the workman is being crushed out, for he has 
only to work in one mill, workshop, or factory in one part of the country 
and he becomes known all over. This system, although in its infancy, bids 
fair to become so perfected that it will be impossible for a man to work in 
any part of the country if his last employer is dissatisfied with him. The 
tendency throughout for the past few years has been to discourage the 
American youth when he sought to learn a trade. He is unwilling to spend 
years in acquiring knowledge which may never be of service to him. The 
colleges and universities are full to overflowing, and soon the professions 
will be as crowded as the trades are to-day. 

This is an age of revolution and evolution. It is the most marvelous age 
the 'world has ever witnessed, and nothing that has gone before can be com- 
pared to it, or cited as an indication of what is to follow. We cannot with 
any degree of accuracy predict anything for the future ; we grope and fear 
to risk too much, lest some new invention completely upsets all our plans 
and gives the winning hand to another. We find American youths unwill- 
ing to learn trades, because they do not bring rich rewards or assurances of 
stability of employment. There is a fascination about the large cities which 
they did not bear some years ago, and, taking it altogether, we find our- 
selves in a state of transition almost impossible to describe. What the man 
of ante bellum days regarded as a luxury is to-day an absolute necessity. 
Take a look at the room in which you sit when this is read and contrast it 
with what your surroundings would have been in 1858, just thirty years 
ago ; note the changes which time has worked, not alone in the appearance 
of the room, but in that of its occupants. Once we put a little oil in a sau- 
cer, hung a rag over the edge, struck the flints together and ignited the 
rag. With such a light our reading and sewing were done. Then we ran 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTIOESfflP SYSTEM. 61 

the tallow into the mold and made the candle ; we next ran the fluid into 
the lamp, and stood back in awe to see it bum ; after that gas began to 
work its way beneath our sidewalks and into our sitting rooms ; then the 
old Drake farm was ' tapped, and the world was astounded to find itself 
burning the product of the earth after the refiner changed its color. Then 
we said, we can go no farther, and found our words were contradicted by a 
glare of light which almost rivalled the noonday sun, and electricity flashed 
itself into favor. (At eleven o'clock at night I saw a man painting a sign 
on Chestnut St., Philadelphia, without the aid of lamp or torch ; electricity 
answered every purpose.) 

Ten short years ago we wrote our letter, or, if we were in a hurry, we 
telegraphed to our friends ; to-day we call up the exchange and talk across 
cities and counties. Soon States will be traversed by the sound of the hu- 
man voice. To-day we talk into a ftinnel, and not only are the words 
recorded, but the very sound and quiver of the voice is faithfully preserved, 
to be repeated as often as may be required at any time during our lives or 
after death. We stop and ask. What next? The answer comes with the 
rapidity of lightning from some quarter of the universe in the shape of a 
new invention. What has this to do with the American youth ?. Every- 
thing, for we must devote more time to him than heretofore, so that he may 
not, Micawber like, stand in idleness waiting for something to turn up. 
Let us turn it up for him by inaugurating a system of industrial schools in 
which the arts, the sciences, and trades will be taught. Surely the Ameri- 
can youth is worthy of the best that we can do for him, and we should 
encourage him in his first steps, that his later ones may be for the good of 
the nation. At the rate at which science is advancing, there will soon be 
no shoveling of earth, no leveling of hills by hand, no digging of trenches, 
no cutting of earth, or wood, or iron by hand ; all of these things, and all 
else that enters into the industry of the world, will be done by the aid of 
science. There will be no trades or tradesmen of any special callings or 
crafts. In the world's production nothing should be missing, nor should 
one man have an advantage over another which nature does not give him. 
We will have men of no particular trade, but all men will know all crafts ; 
not the " Jack-of-all-trades," but a far different being who knows all trades 
well. Every schoolroom should be a workshop, a laboratory, and an art 
gallery. At present a trade learned is a trade lost, for the learner does 
not have an opportunity to practise but one part of his calling, and if thrown 
out of that one groove cannot fall into another. Under an industrial sys- 
tem of schooling every American youth will know sufficient of all trades 
to step into whatever opens itself to him, and he will not be forced by cir- 
cumstances to stand in the way of another who is anxious to rise, but will 
be fitted to take a step forward at a moment's notice. He will always find 
work to do, and will do it more rapidly, with better tools, and for a greater 
reward than the artisan of the present. The unsettled conditions which 
now make trade unionism a necessity will vanish, and in that age there 
will be but one organization necessary — the fatherhood of God and the 
brotherhood of man. 



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62 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

TRADE SCHOOLS. 

As bearing upon this subject of apprentices we append state- 
ments of a few of the trade schools in the State which instruct 
boys and girls in self-supporting trades, beginning with the 
North End Union Trade School, the first school recognized 
by employers. Master printers now accept this school of 
printing as a part of the apprenticeship agreement. 

North End Union Trade School^ Boston. 

The North End Union was started in 1892 as a continuation 
of the Hanover Street chapel. It is under the Benevolent Fra- 
ternity of Churches, which was organized in 1834 and incor- 
porated in 1839, composed of delegates from 12 Unitarian 
churches of Boston. In addition to various other forms of work, 
educational and social, it contains a school of plumbing, estab- 
lished in 1894 and said to be the first real trade school in New 
England, and a school of printing, established in 1900. To 
be admitted to the plumbing school, pupils must be working at 
their trade and be at least 17 years of age. Originally appli- 
cants for admission to the school of printing must have had at 
least six months' experience in the composing or press room 
of some printing establishment. 

In October, 1904, the course of instruction in the school of 
printing was changed from an evening to a day school, and the 
conditions of admission were modified. Any boy, 16 years of 
age or over, without previous experience in a printing oflice, 
is admitted. He is obliged to serve three months on probation 
to determine fitness, after which, if he shall prove capable he 
is apprenticed to some employing printer. The number of pu- 
pils in 1905 was as follows : Plumbing school, 34, and print- 
ing school, 6. 

Tuition fees are : Plumbing school, $10 for the term of 50 
evenings of shop work; printing school, $100 per term of 
52 weeks ($50 payable in advance and $50 payable within six 
months of entrance) . There are two instructors in the trades 
taught, one being a master or employing plumber, one a prac- 
tical printer. The supporting funds are raised from voluntary 
contributions and from the tuition and other fees paid by the 
pupils, the annual cost of maintaining the trade courses being 
$1,800, exclusive of rent and superintendence. 

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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 63 

Plumbing school : The courses of instruction consist of 50 lessons in practical shop- 
work, as follows : Seams, overcast joints, cup joints, wiping horizontal round joints, 
wiping horizontal branch joints, wiping upright round joints, quarter bends, wiping 
upright branch joints, wiping a stopcock, wiping a flange on a 2-inch pipe, wiping a 
2-inch ferrule, wiping a bath plug, wiping a vertical branch, wiping an upright flange, 
traps ; also nine lectures on the science of plumbing as follows : Drains, soil, and waste 
pipes ; trapping and ventilation of drain, soil, and waste pipes ; cold water supply pipes ; 
tanks ; fixtures ; trapping of fixtures ; pumps ; miscellaneous. Shop work on Monday 
and Wednesday evenings ; lectures on announced evenings. Each applicant is required 
to declare that it is his intention to remain in the school until he shall have completed 
the required course. All the necessary tools are provided for each pupil. Materials are 
supplied at no additional cost. 

Printing school : The course of instruction embraces book, job, and advertisement 
composition, and platen presswork. Practice in various kinds of straightaway compo- 
sition, from both reprint and manuscript copy, is followed by miscellaneous display 
work, the make-up of book pages, title pages, pamphlets, and a variety of the usual 
commercial forms. 

The schools are run entirely in the interests of the pupils and 
not for the purpose of profit on the work done, even though 
the expense is much greater than the income. This gives 
freedom of instruction, elasticity of methods, and thorough- 
ness of work. 

The school of printing is supplied with three platen presses ; 
also, Roman and display types of various styles, leads, brass 
rules, borders, initial letters, typographical ornaments, and the 
usual furniture, material, and tools of the modern printing 
office, selected with especial reference to the requirements. 

Preference is given to indentured pupils, who must be 
16 years of age or over, and who are responsible to their 
employers for regular attendance and faithful performance of 
the work in the school. 

The school is continuous, and pupils may enter at any time. 
The working hours are identical with those of the regular work- 
shop, from 7.40 a.m. to 5.45 p.m., excepting Saturday afternoon. 

Special emphasis is placed upon an apprenticeship inden- 
ture between master printer, pupil-apprentice, and school of 
printing. The object of such agreement is to establish mutual 
obligations between employer and pupil-apprentice; on the 
part of employer to provide such opportunity in the shop 
as will enable such boy to become an efficient, skilful work- 
man, and on the part of such pupil-apprentice to render ear- 
nest, faithful service during the term of agreement. 

It is recognized that the printing school, at best, can only 
lay the foundations of the trade, and that the rounding-out and 
larger development of the practical requirements of the trade 



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64 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

must be acquired iij the trade itself. In order to establish 
proper relations between the school and workshop, and to avoid 
the fatal consequences of ** drifting," which is so liable to occur 
while looking for a place in the chosen trade, this mutual 
agreement is considered essential. The apprenticeship in- 
denture is as follows : 

This IndeDture, made and entered into this third day of October, one thousand nine 
hundred and four, by and between Henry G. Brown, guardian of Thomas H. Brown, a 
minor, at the age of seventeen years, on the twelfth day of July, and the said Thomas 
H. Brown, whose consent to the making of this indenture is expressed and testified to 
by his becoming a party hereto and signing the same, parties of the first part, and 
Franklin W. Nelson & Co., party of the second part. 

WUnesseth, that said Henry G. Brown, guardian of said Thomas H. Brown, and by 
and with his consent, as aforesaid, has bound, and by these presents does bind the said 
Thomas H. Brown, minor, to said Franklin W. Nelson & Co., as an apprentice to learn 
the trade of printing at the work-rooms and offices of the aforesaid party of the second 
part, for the term of four years from the date hereof, with the express understanding 
that one year of the said term of four years shall be devoted to the training of the North 
End Union School of Printing, at 20 Parmenter Street, Boston. 

And hereby covenants that said Thomas H. Brown, shall and will faithfully serve 
and perform all the duties of an apprentice to the said Franklin W. Nelson & Co., and 
that he will not absent himself from the said School of Printing or from his place with- 
out previous permission, unless compelled by sickness or unavoidable accidents. 

That he will be prompt and regular in his attendance at said School of Printing, and 
will strive to perform to the best of his ability the work required of him in said School. 

That he will neither waste the goods, nor needlessly injure or destroy any machinery, 
tools, or other property that may be put in his hands or under his control. 

That he will use his best efforts to complete such work as may be given to him, to 
the satisfaction of his employer. 

And that if said apprentice shall fail to perform the work of said School of Printmg 
in a satisfactory manner, or shall prove idle or unteachable, profligate or disobedient, 
or violate this agreement, the said Franklin W. Nelson & Co., if they choose, may be 
released from all obligations under this contract. 

In consideration whereof, the said Franklin W. Nelson & Co. agree and bind them- 
selves to teach, or cause to be taught to him, said Thomas H. Brown, in addition to 
the training of said School of Printing, the trade of printing as fully and completely 
as the same may be in the power of the respective parties to teach and receive, and to 
pay, or cause to be paid, by the salJ Franklin W. Nelson & Co., to the said Thomas H. 
Bro\vn, for his services as an apprentice, as aforesaid, the first six months and the 
second six months of his term of apprenticeship having been spent in said School of 
Printing, as follows : 

The sum of nine dollars per week for the third six months, ten dollars per week for 
the fourth six months thereafter, eleven dollars per week for the fifth six months, 
twelve dollars per week for the sixth six months, fourteen dollars per week for the sev- 
enth six months, and sixteen dollars per week for the eighth six months, provided 
nevertheless, that payment for all time which the said Thomas H. Brown may be absent 
from the work-rooms and offices of the said Franklin W. Nelson & Co. is to be deducted 
from the sum otherwise by this agreement due from and payable by the said Franklin 
W. Nelson & Co. to the said Thomas H. Brown. In testimony whereof, the said par- 
ties have hereunto set their hands and affixed their seals to duplicate copies hereof the 
day and year above written. 

(L.S.) THOMAS H. BROWN, 

(L.S.) HENRY G. BROWN, 

(L.S.) FRANKLIN W. NELSON 8c CO. 



c 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 65 

Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association Trade School, 

Boston. 

This school was opened October 29, 1900. Its main object 
is to provide an opportunity for the young men of Eastern 
Massachusetts who are already employed in some trade to 
profit by instruction in the practical and theoretical principles 
of that trade. It is under the management of an executive 
committee chosen from the members of the Massachusetts Chari- 
table Mechanic Association. The trades taught at present are 
masonry, plumbing, carpentry, sheet-metal work, electricity, 
and house-painting. Drawing is taught as a part of each trade. 
Each graduate is given a diploma certifying to his mechanical 
ability and recommending him to the employers in his trade. 

There are eight instructors, all of practical training, and 
employed in the trade taught by them. At present rooms in 
the building of the Association (The Mechanics Building) are 
used for the school. The equipment of these rooms has cost 
about $5,000. Funds are provided by appropriations from 
the treasury of the Association, and the cost of maintaining 
the school is defrayed from the same source and from tuition 
fees. 

The sessions of the school are held in the evening only, on 
three nights of each week, from October until April. Tuition 
is $12 for the term, covering the cost of tools and materials, 
payable when a pupil enters the school. Applicants must be 
not less than 17 years nor more than 24 years of age, and able 
to read and write the English language. They must be of 
good moral character, and each applicant must be vouched for 
by two reliable citizens. 

Masonry: The coarse in masonry (bricklaying) requires three terms of about 76 
evenings each. The practical work takes the form of building eight, twelve, sixteen, 
and twenty-inch straight brick walls ; return corners, piers, arches, fireplaces, and flues ; 
setting window frames, sills and lintels ; blocking, toothing, and corbelling. After the 
work has been carried as high as can be conveniently reached the bricks are taken 
down and cleaned by a laborer hired by the school. The student is required to practise 
under the supervision of the instructor until he can do each piece of work well ; when 
sufficient skill is attained he is allowed to proceed to the next exercise. 

Lectures are given on the properties and process of manu- 
facture of brick, lime, and cement; on foundations, walls, 
bonding, etc. 



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66 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

Plumbing : The course in plumbing requires two terms of about 76 evenings each 
and is especially adapted to the needs. of young men already working as plumbers' 
helpers. The practical work consists of the wiping of 24 different kinds of joints, brass 
and lead pipe bending, caulking and soil pipe work, traps, and the installing of different 
kinds of fixtures. Sectional valves, faucets, ball cocks, etc., are provided to enable the 
student to study their construction and operation. Each exercise, wiping a joint for 
example, is practised until the student can do the work rapidly and well. 

The theoretical part of the trade is taught by question books on drainage and venti- 
lation, and hot and cold water supply pipes and fixtures. A satisfactory examination 
must be passed on these questions before the student can receive the diploma of the 
school. Another important branch of this part of the work is the correction of plans 
of defective plumbing, to give practice in detecting such defects and to serve as warn- 
ings against repeating such mistakes in practical work. Lectures are given by experts 
in special lines of work. Successful completion of this course fits the student to pass 
the examinations held by the various cities for the purpose of determining the fitness 
of candidates to receive the plumber's license. 

Carpentry : The course in carpentry requires three terms of about 76 evenings each. 
The work is so planned as to give opportunity for practice in joinery, cabinet mak- 
ing, boat building, or house carpentry, including framing, inside and outside finish. 
Sufficient bench work is required to insure the skilful use of each of the ordinary 
carpenter's tools. After learning in this way the care and use of the tools commonly 
used in the trade, the student is allowed to progress as fast as ability and application 
will admit in the direction of the application of this knowledge to the building of 
articles of furniture, small frame houses, and boats. The school is fortunate enough to 
be provided with sufficient room to make the carrying out of almost any project of this 
kind possible. 

The theoretical part of the trade is not neglected. The instruction in geometry and 
the use of plans is carried on largely in the drawing classes, and the use of the carpen- 
ter's square in the laying out of difficult framing problems is made a feature of the 
shop instruction. 

Sheet-metal work : The course in sheet-metal work includes instruction in pattern 
draughting, tinsmithing, cornice and sky light work. Instruction is first given in 
bench work with the soldering iron, shears, and other common tinsmith's tools, and 
as skill is acquired and the work progresses in difficulty the student is taught the use 
of the various machines used in the trade. Drawings are made of the details of the 
intersections of surfaces both plane and curved, from which the pattern for each 
exercise is obtained. For this purpose the class is equipped with the ordinary sets of 
drawing instruments. Usually the work for which the pattern has thus been made 
is actually executed in sheet iron, but the construction of the pattern is considered to 
be the most important part of the work. Instruction in the use of drawing instruments 
is carried on in the regular drawing classes. 

Electricity: The course in electricity includes instruction in wiring bells, burglar 
alarms, gas fixtures, incandescent and arc lamps ; the study and care of dynamos and 
motors; switch-board wiring; telephony; the care of storage batteries; cable work, 
including joint wiping, etc. As far as possible the apparatus is erected in the shop 
according to plans prepared by the student. At frequent intervals, lectures by experts 
are delivered on practical electrical topics. Enough of the theory of electricity is taught 
to make the student an intelligent workman. 

Painting: The course in house-painting includes instruction in the care and use of 
the common tools used by painters ; rules of health ; mixing colors ; painting on fresh 
wood, brick and plaster surfaces; graining; glazing; kalsomining. Lectures on the 
materials used in the trade, and the elements of light, color and design. Instruction in 
frescoing and sign-painting will be given whenever the demand for such instruction 
becomes apparent. 

Drawing: Instruction in drawing is given to each student, without extra charge, 
with the idea of making the instruction in the various trades more thorough and 
valuable. No attempt is made to carry the instruction far enough to produce finished 



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No. 15.] THE APPKENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 67 

dranghtsmeii» bat sufficient instruction is furnished for the purposes of the trade which 
is being studied. The use of the ordinary drawing instruments is taught, simple prob- 
lems in mechanical drawing worked out, and enough instruction in free-hand drawing 
is given to enable the student to make a rough but intelligible sketch of a piece of work 
to be constructed in connection with his own trade. 



Boston Asylum and Farm School^ Boston. 

This school was founded in 1814 for the purpose of training 
boys of deserving character to earn a livelihood. It was lo- 
cated on the corner of Salem and Charter streets until 1833, 
when Thompson's Island was purchased, and there it is 
located at the present day. It is a private school having no 
connection with the city of Boston or with the State. The 
school receives orphan boys of good moral character, between 
the ages of 10 and 14 years, furnishes them with a comfortable 
home, affords them a grammar school education, and teaches 
them the foundations of several trades. All the boys attend 
the school one-half of the day, and during the other half work 
at the various trades and occupations that are taught. At the 
age of 15 or 16 the boys are expected to have completed the 
course of study, and they then return to their relatives or 
friends, or positions aft found for them to work at the trades 
or occupations they have learned, or homes are found for them 
on farms. 

In addition to its academic course the school has regular 
courses for the teaching of agriculture, meteorology, mechan- 
ical drawing, carpentry, wood-turning, wood-carving, black- 
smithing, and machine work, with instruction in printing, office 
work, painting, cobbling, typewriting, the training of band 
musicians, marine engineering, the care and management of 
boats, and the training of pilots. 

Industrial training is also given in the school bakery, laun- 
dry, and kitchen. The academic diploma admits to the Boston 
high schools. Diplomas are also given in sloyd, mechanical 
drawing, and forging. 

In the ** Cottage Row " government, the school has a min- 
iature city, with its various departments modelled on actual 
forms, with practical lessons in government, politics, transfer 
of property, etc., while the Bank and Trading Company give 
an excellent training in banking and business. . 



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68 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

The annual expense of maintaining the school averages about 
$20,000. The funds for this purpose come from invested funds, 
sales from the farm, amounts paid by the Boston BoarAof Over- 
seers of the Poor for board of city orphans at school, donations, 
bequests, etc. 

N^orth Bennet Street Industrial School^ Boston. 

This school was established in 1 88 1 for social and industrial work 
among the poor. It provides especially for the general develo^v 
ment of children through manual training and other influences. 

There are classes in sewing, millinery, dressmaking, em- 
broidery, cooking, sloyd, leather work, wood-carving, and 
music-printing. 

A vacation school for six weeks in the Summer teaches many 
of these subjects. Clubs for young men and women, girls, and 
boys are carried on in the building, and there are libraries and 
a gymnasium. 

An evening class in industrial modeling in clay, started in 
1897, is also carried on here for wage-earning men and women 
who are workers in stone, wood, clay, and plaster, and also 
for boys over 14 years of age. 

An unusual opportunity is thus given for the cultivation 
of taste and skill in decorative work, and as this is closely 
connected with trade work it has a right to consideration here. 
The instructor, trained in stone works in England as a modeler 
and wood and stone carver, follows such courses of instruction 
as seem best to him. 

Trade School for Girls ^ Boston. 

The first year's work of this school opened September 21, 
1904. A summer experiment of nine weeks in 1904 was con- 
ducted for the purpose of determining whether it was possible 
to give young girls trade instruction which would meet the 
employer's demands. The school building, formerly a resi- 
dence, has a capacity of about 60. 

The equipment is such as to meet the demands in the most 
economical manner, without too greatly limiting the usefulness 
of the experiment. Ten sewing machines, driven by electric 
power, are in use, together with foot-power machines, tables, 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 69 

and the other equipment necessary for plain sewing, dress- 
making, and millinery. 

The departments of the school are dressmaking, millinery, 
and machine operating. In each of these departments the 
girls may be prepared to enter a variety of trades. Thus the 
work in dressmaking is so planned that girls may be prepared 
as seamstresses, dressmakers' helpers, experienced skirt finish- 
ers, waist finishers, or sleeve makers, according as it is possible 
for them to give a longer or a shorter time to the training. 
The same is true of milHnery. The girls are prepared to be 
frame makers, hat makers, or trimmers if special ability is 
shown. In machine operating, almost an endless variety of 
trade work is open to the girl. The mastering of the electric 
power machine is a preparation for many specialized lines of 
work. Thus a girl may go into apron factories, shirt factories, 
establishments where shirt waists and dresses are made for the 
wholesale market, or where there is the possibility of upholstery 
work, and if the special machine is introduced, the girl may 
become an expert embroiderer, button-hole maker, or other 
specialized worker. 

The policy has been to begin with the simple processes for 
the control of the needle and the machine, and to advance 
gradually to the more difficult parts of the work. The in- 
struction is individual, making it possible for each girl to 
progress according to her ability. Each step is repeated again 
and again, and applied in various ways, in order to give the 
necessary experience before the next step is taken. This en- 
ables a girl who can devote but a few months' time to the 
training to enter the trade at a better advantage than if each 
step had been covered by one experience of a kind. For, 
although she may not have covered so much ground, she has 
at least gained a greater mastery in some one part of the work. 
No attempt is made to produce expert dressmakers, milliners, 
or other trade workers, but rather to give the necessary ex- 
perience, skill, and speed in some of the more fundamental 
processes. The training is such as to enable the girl to enter 
her trade, beginning at any one of a number of kinds of work, 
and to advance intelligently along that line. 

To develop in the trade worker qualities needed, design 



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70 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

and its application to trade products is an important part of 
the school work. Several hours a week are required of each 
girl regardless of her trade. The fundamental principles of 
design are taught, and as soon as possible the application is 
made to the particular trade for which the girl is being fitted. 
Special ability in this line of work is noted, particularly in the 
attitude of the girls toward choice of color, trimmings, and 
designs for dresses and hats. Each department is closely 
allied with the work in design. 

With the hope of developing at some future time a trade 
relative to household service, a simple course in domestic 
science was given during the second summer session. The 
girls were taught to prepare some simple dish to supplement 
the cold luncheon which they had brought, to care for the lunch 
room, and to serve their daily luncheon attractively. This 
work has been a success, and it is thought that with sufficient 
financial support this department might contribute toward the 
solution of the problem of domestic service. 

The present teaching force consists of a director and a teacher 
of each of the following departments : Dressmaking, plain sew- 
ing, millinery, machine-operating, domestic science, design, and 
gymnastics. This number has been found none too large to 
conduct the work of the school, as the individual character of 
the instruction necessitates small classes. 

The attendance has steadily increased since the opening of 
the school. Beginning in June, 1904, with 18 pupils, the 
membership increased to 83, which was the maximum number, 
in July, 1905. The equipment and teaching force permit of a 
regular attendance of 60 pupils, and special provision is made 
for the overflow during the Summer. During the Winter 
months the regular attendance reached 53. 

While no girl is promised a position on entrance to the 
school, if she remains for the required time and is faithful 
there is no difficulty in placing her. Other results of the work 
have been that the employers are now willing to offer a better 
initial wage. Furthermore, the girls placed have already 
been advanced rapidly. Not the least satisfactory of the 
results has been that girls who have been reported as abso- 
lutely worthless at the end of three or six months' training, at 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 71 

the close of the year have so thoroughly satisfied the same em- 
ployers that they have declared themselves ready to take as 
many girls as the school could supply. The school has thus 
gradually gained the co-operation of the employers, who have 
come to the position where they are not only willing to offer 
higher wages at the beginning, but to accept girls on trial and 
to help the school by giving careful criticism of their work. 
Many of the employers have already expressed themselves as 
believing that the school will help them in the solution of their 
problems. 

Occasional visits to museums are made for the study and 
observation of beautiful examples, and so far as possible visits 
are made to textile schools, mills, and other factories, that 
the girls may gain a better understanding of manufacturing 
processes. 

The requirements for admission are that applicants must be 
over 14 and under 17 years of age ; signify their intention of 
becoming self-supporting ; apply in person ; and bring refer- 
ence from teacher or employer. 

Women's Educational and Industrial Union y Boston, 
The emphasis of union classes falls on trade work. At the 
moment, opportunities are widening for women in many trades, 
and the commercial value of training both to the worker and to 
the employer is becoming apparent. In the belief that there 
is at present no more productive field in the way of educational 
opportunities for women than that of trade training, the class 
committee made a careful investigation of the demand for 
trained workers that exists in each of the trades mentioned in 
this outline, and as a result has instituted the following trade 
classes : 

Eat making: The aim is to fit women for the trade of makers of hats. Competent 
makers are in demand, and can earn from 10 to 12 dollars a week. Makers nsaally 
get their training by the "apprentice system" that prevails in millinery shops. The 
advantages of a trade class over the apprentice system are the possibility of more 
personal attention to individual pupils and of more thorough and systematic training, 
thus insuring to the pupil more rapid advancement than that of the average apprentice. 
Outline of Work — I. Class work in frame and hat making, drawing, principles of color 
and design, simple book-keeping and accounts. 2. Practice work in order work and 
"rush orders," in buying materials and keeping accounts, in care of stock, in duties of 
saleswomen. A Class Shop is conducted in connection with the trade class in millinery. 



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72 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

An exhibit and sale of hats is held in the Fall and Spring. Orders are taken from Sep- 
tember to July. A course of 30 weeks — five days a week for seven honrs daily. Every 
pnpil is required to serve for one month in actual shop work before receiving her certifi- 
cate. Certificates are given to pupils who have completed the work of both terms and a 
month of practice work in a satisfactory manner. The tuition charge for one term is 
$30; for the full course (two terms) $50. A careful record of each pupil is kept, and 
excellence in the production of salable material entitles the maker to a commission on 
the estimated value of the work. 

MtMhine-made hat frames : The aim is to fit young girls to make frames with the 
help of the recently invented " Nontie *' wire frame machine. A new trade that ofibrs 
light, cleanly work, unusually high pay, and a long season to skilled workers. In the 
nse of this machine, knowledge of line and proportion is as essential to the commercial 
value of the product as mechanical skill. Outline of work includes : Practice in frame 
making by hand and by machine ; drawing, design, and color work ; business talks ; 
physical exercises. A course of 12 weeks — five days a week for seven hours daily. 
Every pupil is required to serve for one week in actual factory work before receiving 
her certificate. Graded certificates are given to pupils who have completed the course, 
including the week of factory work, in a satisfactory manner. Entrance requirements — 
A grammar school certificate or its equivalent, and references from former teachers. No 
charge is made for tuition. 

Salesmanship : The aim is to train young women for practical work as saleswomen 
in shops. The outline of work includes : Lessons in arithmetic and practical business 
principles ; study of the growth and manufacture of materials ; theory of salesmanship ; 
short talks on manners and hygiene; color and design. Also practice and observation 
in actual shop work. While learning, pupils have an opportunity to earn a small wage 
both in Union salesrooms and in down-town shops. A course of 15 weeks — five days a 
week for seven honrs daily. Every pupil is required to serve for one month in actual 
shopwork before receiving her certificate. Certificates are given to pupils who have com- 
pleted the course in a satisfactory manner. Entrance requirements ^ A high school 
certificate. (The Superintendent may admit, at her discretion, younger girls ) Ref- 
erences from former teachers. No charge is made for tuition. 

In addition to the trade classes, a general class in millinery 
is offered both as a day and evening class, its aim being primarily 
to fit young women to make their own hats. Term I — Winter 
Hats — Term II — Summer Hats. 18 lessons, two lessons a 
week — two hours each. Tuition $10 per term for day class — 
$5 per term for evening class. 

JEJvening School of Trades^ Springfield, 
In the Autumn of 1898 steps were taken to provide at public 
expense instruction in trades. Evening classes were organized 
to meet in the building of the Mechanic Arts High School, the 
valuable equipment of which could thus be put to a double use. 
There were two classes formed in tool-making and one in 
plumbing. Each class met three evenings a week, from 7.15 
to 9.15, for five months. These classes proved to be very suc- 
cessful. Not only was the instruction acknowledged to be of 
great value to the men who received it, but it was also admitted 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESfflP SYSTEM, 73 

to be of general profit to the trades represented. The Master 
Plumbers' Association voluntarily agreed, in employing help, 
to give the preference to the members of the evening classes in 
plumbing. Leading representatives of the iron-working and 
woodworking trades expressed approval, and advised their 
employees to join these classes. It was evident from the first 
that the expense of maintaining this addition to the public 
school system of Springfield would not be a serious matter, and 
the several city governments have, almost invariably, promptly 
voted the moderate sum required. No inconsiderable return 
has come to the city in the tools and other apparatus made by 
the machine shop classes. 

During the past three years the growth of this school has 
been exceedingly encouraging. The classes in machine shop 
practice and tool-making have more than doubled in enrollment, 
exhausting the capacity of the shop and creating a waiting list 
of applicants. The value of this work is evidently appreciated 
by those who have availed themselves of the opportunities 
offered in these classes. The enrollment in the woodworking 
and pattern-making class has also increased. A class in mathe- 
matics for mechanics was organized at the opening of the school 
in October, 1901, and it proved to be a valuable addition to the 
school. The enlargement of this work during the past year is 
evidence of a growing appreciation among mechanics of the 
value of such instruction. There are now three classes, namely, 
an elementary, a middle, and an advanced class, which together 
cover a wide range of mathematical subjects. A lecture course 
in electricity and magnetism was also started in 1901. The 
following year this work was extended by the addition of two 
laboratory' classes in applied electricity, each class coming twice 
a week. The course has been developed during the past year 
to include a class in electrical measurements, as well as the 
elementary laboratory class and the lectures. These classes 
have met the popular interest in electrical subjects, and the 
work already accomplished justifies their continuance. The 
work of this school now includes thorough instruction in me- 
chanical drawing, machine shop practice and tool-making, 
plumbing, joinery and wood-turning, pattern-making, shop 
mathematics, and electricity. The enrollment in these classes 



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74 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

amounts to over three hundred 'and is remarkably constant, 
showing a much higher percentage of attendance than is com- 
mon in evening schools. 

The object of the Evening School of Trades is mainly to give 
men already employed in the trades, who know, therefore, at 
least a part of the trade in which they are employed, an oppor- 
tunity to broaden their mechanical training and make them- 
selves more efficient workmen. It is not the function of this 
school to train apprentices as such, but to supplement the im- 
perfect and highly specialized training of modem shops by 
giving machine hands, helpers, and apprentices, so far as there 
are any apprentices, an opportunity to gain practice in a 
greater variety of work than would ever be open to any one 
man under the modern system of machine production. The 
aim of the school is to enable a mechanic to acquire a wider 
range of practical knowledge and to improve the quality of his 
work, and thus reach a higher classification in his trade with 
increased wages. This is a great advantage to the individual 
workman, but it does not materially affect the condition of the 
labor market in general. 

Tuition in all the classes is free to all persons over 14 
years of age who are residents of Springfield, but a fee of $5 
for materials and other incidental expenses is charged each 
member of the classes in machine shop practice, in pattern- 
making, in plumbing, and in the laboratory work in elec- 
tricity. Non-residents are charged a tuition fee for the season 
of twenty-one weeks as follows : For mechanical drawing, for 
mathematics, and for electricity, $10; for all other classes, 
$15. Non-residents are also charged the incidental fee of $5. 
Members are required to be regular in attendance. Persons 
wishing to join the classes must give satisfactory references as 
to character and show evidence of ability to do the work re- 
quired. Certificates of proficiency are awarded in each course 
to those who complete that course satisfactorily. The school 
opens the second week in October and is in operation five 
months, closing Thursday and Friday evenings of Thanksgiv- 
ing week and during the vacation of the Christmas holiday sea- 
son. The school hours are from 7.15 p.m. to 9.15 p.m. 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESfflP SYSTEM. 75 

Bradford Durjee Textile School^ Fall River. 

This school is the third school to be established in the Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts under the provisions of Chapter 
475, Acts of 1895. It was organized in 1899, and opened for 
students on March 7, 1904. 

The total cost of the plant was $190,000, including the cost 
of the land which was a gift from the heirs of Bradford Durfee 
for whom the school was named. 

The building, which was built expressly for the purpose, is 
thoroughly equipped with the latest and most improved cotton 
machinery and has every provision for class rooms, lecture 
rooms, and laboratories for conducting a successful school. 

The school is designed to meet the needs of two distinct 
classes of students : One class being those who wish a prelimi- 
nary training in the art of manufacturing before entering upon 
the practical work of the mill ; the other being those already 
at work in the mill who feel the necessity for a training in the 
principles of the art and a greater knowledge of all the depart- 
ments of their chosen vocation. 

The Faculty consists of the principal of the school, and in- 
structors in designing, chemistry and dyeing, carding and 
spinning, weaving, and drawing, and assistant instructors in 
carding and spinning, weaving, and designing. 

The entrance requirements for day classes are as follows : 
Applicants must be of good moral character and at least 17 
years of age. A certificate of graduation from any high school 
will admit a student without examination. Other applicants will 
be required to pass examinations in arithmetic and English. 

The tuition for day students is $100 per year for residents 
of Massachusetts. For non-residents $150 per year. 

The school hours for day classes are from 8.30 a.m. to 12.30 
P.M. and from 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. except Saturday afternoon. 

The following regular courses are offered to day students : 

No. 1. General cotton mannfactnring ; three years. This coarse is arranged for 
those who wish a general training in all departments of cotton manufacturing. It in- 
cludes thorough instruction in carding, spinning, weaving, designing, chemistry, dyeing, 
drawing, and engineering. 

No. 2. Designing and weaving ; two years. This course is offered to students who 
wish to specialize in designing and weaving. In addition to these subjects a course in 
mechanical drawing is included. 



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76 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

No. 3. Chemistry and dyeing; two years. This course is offered to students who 
wish to specialize in chemistry and dyeing. It is adapted to fit yonng men for respon- 
sible positions in bleacheries, dye and print works ; with manafactnrers of and dealers 
in drags, chemicals, and dye stuffs ; and for such other places as require the services of 
a textile or analytical chemist. A diploma will be given on the satisfactory completion 
of the general course. 

The evening class entrance requirements are that applicants 
must be of good moral character and at least 17 years of age. 
They must satisfy the principal that they can successfully pur- 
sue the courses they select. No charge for tuition is made to 
students who are residents of Fall River. For non-residents, 
the tuition fee is $2.50 each term per subject payable in ad- 
vance. The school year is divided into two terms. The school 
hours for evening classes are from 7.30 p.m. to 9.30 p.m. 
Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, and Friday. 

The following courses are offered to evening students : No. 
1, picker and card rooms, two years; No. 2, ring spinning, 
twisting, and warp preparation, one year; No. 3, mule spin- 
ning, one year; No. 4, mill calculations, one year; No. 5, 
plain weaving and fixing, one year; No. 6, box and dobby 
fixing, one year ; No. 7, Jacquard weaving and fixing, one year ; 
No. 8, designing, three years; No. 9, general chemistry, one 
year; No. 10, qualitative and quantitative analysis, two years ; 
No. 11, dyeing, one year; No. 12, advanced dyeing, one year; 
No. 13, elementary designing and cloth analysis, one year; 
No. 14, Jacquard designing, one year. 

Each evening course in general covers two evenings each 
week. More than one course may be taken by special permis- 
sion of the principal. Certificates are given on the satisfactory 
completion of each course. 

Lowell Textile School^ Lowell. 
This school was incorporated << for the purpose of establish- 
ing and maintaining a textile school for instruction in the 
theory and practical art of textile and kindred branches of 
industry." The incorporators were representatives of the 
great textile corporations of Lowell, Lawrence, and vicinity. 
By the terms of the by-laws, at least three-fourths of the 
trustees must be <* persons actually engaged in or connected 
with textile or kindred manufactures." This was to insure 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESfflP SYSTEM. 77 

the practical character of the management and the instruc- 
tion. 

The Commonwealth is now represented in the corporation 
by His Honor the Lieutenant Governor and the Secretary 
of the Board of Education, ex officiis^ and two trustees ap- 
pointed by the Governor and Council for four-year terms, and 
the city of Lowell by the Mayor, Superintendent of Public 
Schools, the presiding officers of the two branches of the city 
council, and a representative of the textile council, a labor 
organization. 

The school was formally opened January 30, 1897, and 
instruction began February 1, 1897. The new buildings of 
the school were dedicated on February 12, 1903. The admin- 
istration is vested in a president, who is president of the board 
of trustees, and a secretary. There are 22 instructors in the 
school : Head instructor in textile designing, head instructor in 
chemistry and dyeing, head instructor in power-loom weaving, 
head instructor in decorative art, head instructor in woolen and 
worsted yarns, head instructor in cotton yarns, head instructor 
in engineering, head instructor in finishing ; instructor in phys- 
ics, mathematics, and electrical engineering, two instructors 
in chemistry, two instructors in dyeing, instructor in textile 
designing, instructor in hand-loom weaving, two assistant in- 
structors in power-loom weaving, assistant instructor in free- 
hand drawing, instructor in woolen and worsted spinning, 
assistant instructor in wool sorting and conditioning, instructor 
in cotton spinning, instructor in modern languages. In addi- 
tion there are several lecturers on mill engineering. 

The equipment of the school consists of high grade machin- 
ery with all latest improvements, specially built to afford facil- 
ities for all kinds of experimental work, and of such variety as 
is never found in any one textile mill. With the machinery 
already installed, the school claims to have a more varied 
equipment than any other existing textile school either in 
America or Europe. 

The day classes are especially intended for the instruction 
of those whose intention it is to enter the business of textile 
manufacturing in any branch. The courses are sufficiently 
complete to enable a person to start without any previous ac- 



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78 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

quaintance with textiles, but, at the same time, those who have 
been engaged in such business and wish to improve their 
knowledge and opportunities can devote their entire time to 
study most profitably. The very complete equipment of ma- 
chinery enables every process to be practically illustrated. 
The student has the option of selecting any one of five regular 
or several special courses. Each course is intended to cover 
three years. The five regular diploma courses are : Cot- 
ton manufacturing, wool manufacturing, designing (general 
course) , chemistry and dyeing, and textile engineering. 

The courses of instruction in the day classes are as fol- 
lows : First year, first term : Textile designing, cloth con- 
struction, cloth analysis, hand-loom weaving, elements of 
mechanism, mathematics, mechanical drawing, general chem- 
istry, and free-hand drawing. 

This is common to all courses and at the end of this term 
each student is required to select the particular course he is to 
follow in his subsequent studies, and the instruction to be given 
after the first term of the first year is specialized to suit each 
course. 

Cotton manufacturing. First year, second term : Cotton fiber, microscopic exami- 
nation of fiber, cotton manipnlation, textile designing, cloth construction, cloth analy- 
sis, hand-loom weaving, elements of mechanism, mathematics, mechanical drawing, 
general chemistry, and free-hand drawing. Second year; Cotton manipulation, textile 
designing, cloth construction, cloth analysis, machine drawing, applied mechanics, 
electricity, applied physics, textile chemistry and dyeing, warp preparation, power-loom 
weaving. Third year: Cotton manipulation, textile designing, cloth construction, 
cloth analysis, mill engineering, applied physics, electrical engineering, hand-loom 
weaving, power-loom weaving, finishing, knitting machinery, and thesis. 

Wool manufacturing. First year, second term : Wool fiber, microscopic examina- 
tion of fiber, woolen spinning, textile designing, cloth construction, cloth analysis, 
hand-loom weaving, elements of mechanism, mathematics, mechanical drawing, gen- 
eral chemistry, and free-hand drawing. Second year : Woolen and worsted spinning, 
sorting, scouring, carbonizing and conditioning, textile designing, cloth construction, 
cloth analysis, machine drawing, applied mechanics, electricity, applied physics, textile 
chemistry and dyeing, warp preparation, power-loom weaving. Third year: Wool 
manipulation, textile designing, cloth construction, cloth analysis, mill engineering, 
applied physics, electrical engineering, hand-loom weaving, power-loom weaving, fin- 
ishing, knitting machinery, and thesis. 

Designing. First year, second term : Textile designing, cloth construction, cloth 
analysis, design sketching, hand-loom weaving, elements of mechanism, mathematics, 
mechanical drawing, general chemistry, free-hand drawing, and decorative art. Op- 
tions : Woolen and worsted yarns and cotton yarns. Second year : Textile designing, 
cloth construction, cloth analysis, design sketching, Jacquard work, hand-loom weav- 
ing, decorative art, applied mechanics, electricity, applied physics, textile chemistry and 
dyeing, power-loom weaving. Options : Woolen and worsted yams and cotton yarns. 
Third year: Textile designing— advanced work, cloth construction, cloth analysis, 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 79 

hand-loom weaving, decorative art, mill engineering, applied physics, electrical engi- 
neering, power-loom weaving, finishing, and thesis. 

Chemistry and dyeing. First year, second terra : General chemistry, stoichiometry, 
qnalitative analysis, textile designing, cloth construction, cloth analysis, hand-loom 
weaving, elements of mechanism, mathematics, mechanical drawing, German. Second 
year : Textile chemistry and dyeing, chemical philosophy, advanced inorganic chemis- 
try, advanced organic chemistry, industrial chemistry, applied mechanics, electricity. 
Options: Textile designing and power-loom weaving Third year: Advanced textile 
chemistry and dyeing, quantitative analysis, industrial chemistry, physical chemistry, 
dye testing, microscopy, and thesis. Options : Power-loom weaving, mill engineering, 
and finishing. 

Textile engineering. First year, second term : Mathematics, elements of mechan- 
ism, machine drawing, physics, general chemistry, textile designing. Options : Woolen 
and worsted yarns and cotton yarns. Second year: Advanced mechanism, machine 
drawing, applied mechanics, steam and water power, electricity, power-loom weaving. 
Options: Woolen and worsted yarns, cotton yams, advanced mathematics. Third 
year: Mill engineering, mill engineering drawing, power generation, measurement and 
transmission, applied physics, applied electricity, and thesis. 

Graduates of high schools, academies, or higher institutions 
are admitted to day classes upon certificate. All other candi- 
dates for admission are required to pass an examination in 
arithmetic, including metric system, English, geography, alge- 
bra, and plane geometry. The fee for the day course is $100 
per year for residents of Massachusetts ; for non-residents it 
is $150 per year. Special students pay, in general, the full 
fee, but if a course be taken involving attendance at the school 
during a limited time, application may be made to the secre- 
tary for a reduction. All candidates for the diploma of the 
school must file with the secretary not later than May 15 a 
report of some original investigation or research, such thesis 
to have been previously approved by the head of the depart- 
ment in which it is made. Advantages are ofi^ered to persons 
for special research work. 

The diploma of the school is awarded upon the satisfactory 
completion of any one of the five regular courses, covering not 
less than three years, except where entrance is to advanced 
standing. In such cases at least one year's attendance is re- 
quired. For the satisfactory completion of a three years' 
course in any special department, the certificate of the school 
is awarded. It is possible to complete such a course in less 
than three years, if the candidate be passed to advanced stand- 
ing, but at least one year's attendance is required. 

The evening classes of the school are intended to give thor- 
ough instruction to those who are engaged during the day in 



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80 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

mills and workshops, to enable those who wish to perfect 
their knowledge of the branches in which they work, to acquire 
knowledge of other processes than those in which they are reg- 
ularly engaged, and in the course of several winters to com- 
plete a thorough technical education without interfering with 
their daily duties. The courses are : Cotton spinning, a two- 
year course ; woolen spinning, a one-year course ; worsted 
spinning, a two-year course ; designing, a three-year course ; 
chemistry and dyeing, a four-year course ; weaving, a two-year 
course ; mechanical engineering, a two-year course. For the 
satisfactory completion of any one of these courses, the certifi- 
cate of the school is awarded ; the diploma of the school is 
awarded in exchange for certificates of satisfactory completion 
of those subjects which go to make up any one of the several 
regular diploma courses. 

The courses of instruction offered in the evening are identi- 
cal with those of the day with the exception that less time is 
devoted to the machine work. Ordinarily, the handling of the 
machinery is a part familiar to most students through contact 
with it in the daytime, and therefore the explanations and cal- 
culations are of the greater importance. 

The requirements for admission to the evening classes are 
similar to those for the day classes. Graduates of grammar and 
higher schools are received on presentation of proper creden- 
tials ; for all others, examinations are required. The candidates 
must be familiar with the English language and the principles 
of arithmetic. For the first part, a short composition must be 
written on a given theme, and a certain amount must be written 
from dictation ; while in the latter are included addition, deci- 
mals, fractions, percentage, ratio, and proportion. 

The evening courses are free to graduates of the evening 
high and drawing schools, operatives of the mills and machine 
shops, and other residents of Lowell, to such numbers as may 
be accommodated in the various classes. Applications are con- 
sidered in the order in which they are received. 

The fees in the evening classes are much lower than in the 
day classes and are as follows : Cotton spinning, woolen spin- 
ning, worsted spinning, designing, chemistry and dyeing, 
weaving, mechanical engineering, $2.50 per term or $5 per 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 81 

year, for all except residents of Lowell. A deposit of $5 is 
required from all who take the course in chemistry and dyeing, 
whether residents of Lowell or not, to cover the cost of the 
laboratory breakages. At the end of the year any unexpended 
balance will be returned, or an extra charge made, as the case 
may be. 

Lectures are given during the school year upon leather belt- 
ing, general information on oils, electric driving in textile mills, 
fire protection in mills, cotton, cultivation of cotton, common 
uses of steam, water power, artificial humidification in mills, 
sizing compounds and their effect, method of cost finding in 
mills, patent law, and economy in steam plants. 

The annual cost of maintaining the school is about $35,000, 
and the funds for building, equipping, maintaining, etc., are 
raised by State and city appropriations, tuition and other fees, 
and contributions from friends of the school. 

New Bedford Textile School^ New Bedford. 

.This school was incorporated in 1895, the erection of the 
building was begun in 1898, and it was opened for instruction 
October 16, 1899. Money appropriated by the State and city 
built and equipped the school building. Much of the machinery 
was given or loaned to the school by the manufacturers. The 
annual cost of maintaining the school is about $24,000, which 
is met by State and city appropriations, together with fees. 
The building is the first erected in the United States exclusively 
for the purposes of a textile technical school. 

In designing the school, attention was paid to arranging it in 
the most suitable manner for the purposes of imparting textile 
instruction. The structure is of the slow burning mill con- 
struction type, approved by the leading fire insurance associ- 
ations and mill engineers, while the general equipment of the 
school is also illustrative of the best methods of heating, ven- 
tilating, humidifying, and fire protecting mills. 

The school has a wide variety of cotton-mill machinery, and 
this feature of the school is considered as being almost perfect 
for the purpose of a technical school that is devoted exclusively 
to the teaching of cotton manufacturing. Almost every maker 
of cotton machinery in the United States is represented in the 

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82 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

school, together with several English builders, giving the stu- 
dent an opportunity of becoming acquainted with machines 
varied in construction, although utilized for performing the 
same work. 

Students must be at least 14 years of age, and may be of 
either sex or any nationality. Those who have been students 
of other technical institutions, colleges or universities, and 
graduates of high schools are admitted on certificates. Other 
applicants for admission to the school must either pass an 
entrance examination in arithmetic and English, or present 
satisfactory evidence of necessary qualifications in elementary 
education. 

The fee for tuition in the day classes is $50 per term or $100 
for the school year, excepting for those students who, immedi- 
ately prior to their application for enrollment, were non-resi- 
dents of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. In the latter 
case the fee is $75 per term, or $150 per year, in accordance 
with an act of the Legislature of Massachusetts. No fees are 
refunded, excepting by special action of the Board of Trustees. 
The above fee includes admission to any of the evening classes 
in which there is accommodation and which the day students 
may desire to attend. Students are required to supply them- 
selves with such books, tools, and materials as are recom- 
mended by the school, and pay for any breakage or damage that 
they may cause in addition to the above named fees. Diplomas 
are given on the satisfactory completion of a course of study. 
There were enrolled in this school during the last school year 
410 students, with an average attendance of 85 per cent. The 
courses of instruction are divided into day and evening classes. 
The courses of study for day classes are as follows : 

The regular cotton manufacturing course. This course is intended for the training of 
men aspiring to the position of agent, superintendent, overseer, or other responsible 
position in a cotton mill or a cotton machinery works, or to give an opportunity to a 
man holding a responsible position to perfect his knowledge of the cotton mill business. 
It includes: First year — plain weaving, fancy weaving, designing, hand-loom work, 
mechanism and machine drawing, warp preparation, and calculations; second year — 
cotton picking, carding, combing, and spinning, steam engineering, advanced designing, 
and mechanism and machine drawing ; third year — advanced weaving, manufacture 
of combed yarn, designing for pile and Jacquard fabrics, mill engineering, and knitting 
or dyeing. Facilities are given in the third year for the students to carry on experi- 
mental work, and each student graduating is expected to write a thesis, or perform some 
special work in connection with some matter of general interest to a cotton manufacturer. 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 83 

Cotton carding and spinning course. This course is intended to qualify a man to 
hold a position as superintendent of a cotton yarn mill, boss spinner or boss carder, or 
other responsible position in connection with a cotton yarn mill or cotton machinery 
works. It includes cotton picking, carding, combing and spinning, machine drawing 
and mechanism, and steam engineering. 

Weaving course. This course is intended for men who desire to become superintend- 
ents of weaving mills, boss weavers or fixers, or to hold other positions requiring expert 
knowledge of plain or fancy weaving. It includes warp preparation, weaving, design- 
ing, band-loom work, machine drawing, mechanism, and steam engineering. 

Designing course. This course is intended to qualify a man to hold a position as a 
designer in any textile mill, whether cotton, woolen, worsted, or silk. This, in the first 
year, follows the lines of the general cotton manufacturing course. The second year of 
this course, however, is different, almost exclusive attention being given to designing 
and practice on hajid and power looms. 

Chemistry and dyeing course. This course extends for two school years and 
embraces the following subjects : (General and organic chemistry, qualitative and quan- 
titative analysis, dyeing as applied to textile mills. 

Knitting course. This course covers three school years and embraces the following 
subjects : Seamless hosiery knitting, latch needle underwear knitting, circular spring 
needle knitting, circular latch needle sweater knitting, finishing of all classes of knit 
goods, dyeing. 

The school is in session four evenings per week for the ben- 
efit of those students who are engaged in the mills and work- 
shops during the day. Free education in any or all branches 
of cotton manufacturing is offered to those students attend- 
ing the evening classes. No difference is made between the 
courses of instruction of the evening and those of the day. 
The same machinery and same instructors are retained for the 
evening classes, and, in order to accommodate the larger num- 
ber of students found in the evening technical classes, addi- 
tional instructors also have been engaged for the benefit of the 
evening students alone. 

A special feature of the evening instruction is in the minute 
subdivision of subjects, so that any one employed in the mill 
will find in the plan of studies something that will assist him 
or her, and which will apply to the department in which he or 
she is daily engaged, and yet will not necessitate an entry for 
a long course of study in order to get such instruction as is 
desired. Satisfactory evidence of ability to read and write 
English and a knowledge of elementary arithmetic are required. 
The staff of instructors numbers 17, principally mill overseers 
and superintendents, or those formerly holding such positions. 

For evening classes the course in carding covers picking and 
card room machinery, including combing, to be completed in 
a two-year course, two evenings a week. Mule spinning is a 



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84 STATISTICS OF LABOR. [Pub. Doc. 

one-year course, two evenings per week. Ring-spinning is a 
one-term course, two evenings per week. Cotton sampling is 
a one-term course, two evenings per week. Spooling, warp- 
ing, and slashing is a one-term course, two evenings. Weav- 
ing and fixing course covers plain and fancy weaving and loom 
fixing on all the diflTerent makes of American looms. It is a 
two-year course, two evenings per week. The second year 
of this course is devoted to fancy weaving, including dobby 
and drop-box looms, both weaving and fixing. The Jacquard 
weaving course covers one year, two evenings p6r week. 

In the designing department, a course in cloth dissection is 
intended to be a primary designing study sufficient to meet the 
requirements of those connected with the weaving departments 
of the New Bedford mills without qualifying them to hold po- 
sitions as designers. It is a one-year course, two evenings 
per week. The full course in designing covers designing of 
all kinds of cotton fabrics, including both cloth dissection, cloth 
construction, and hand-loom work. It is a two-year course. 
This class is taken in two sections, as follows: Elementary — 
three evenings per week ; advanced — three evenings per week. 
A course in mill arithmetic is for one year, two evenings per 
week. A course in yarn-mill arithmetic covers one year, two 
evenings per week. 

The chemistry course that extends for two years, two even- 
ings per week, includes the subjects of general chemistry, quali- 
tative and quantitative analysis. The dyeing course that covers 
two school years gives instruction in the application of dye- 
stufls in general. 

In the knitting department a course extending for two years, 
three evenings per week, gives instruction in the manufacture 
of all classes of knit goods. 

A mechanical course that covers two school years, two 
evenings per week, gives instruction in mechanism, machine 
drawing, mill engineering and steam engineering. 

Waltham Horological School ^ Waltham. 
The need of better and more thoroughly equipped workmen 
in the trade of watchmaking, repairing, etc., led to the estab- 
lishment of this school in 1870. Under modern conditions in 



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No. 15.] THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 85 

the factories where watches are made, the workmen are kept 
on special branches of the work, and no one has the opportu- 
nity to practise or learn the whole of the trade. When a stu- 
dent has finished his course in this school he is able to make a 
complete watch, and is also a first-class repairer. 

The hours of work in the school are eight on every week day 
except one, when the number of hours is seven. Work is also 
required during such evenings as may be chosen by the mana- 
ger. The charge for tuition is $65 for the first three months, 
$50 for the second three months, $45 for the third three 
months, and $40 for each three months thereafter, payable 
quarterly in advance. 

The course of instruction covers the following branches : 
Plates, wheels, pinions, jewels, balances, staffs, jeweling, 
springing, screws, stem-winding parts, matching, finishing, 
adjusting, repairing, tools, ophthalmology, and engraving. 

Diplomas are given to all who successfully complete the 
prescribed course. Students are expected to purchase the 
smaller tools they use in ordinary bench ^work ; the expense 
need not exceed $20. Lathes and lathe attachments and the 
more expensive tools are furnished by the school. The school 
has four instructors, including a teacher of engraving and a 
teacher of optics, who is a regular physician and oculist. The 
annual cost of maintaining the school is $5,000; this amount 
is raised from the money received from pupils in fees. The 
average attendance during 1904-05 was 30. 



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PUBLICATIONS OF THE 

BUEEAU OF STATISTICS OF LABOK. 



The following issues of the animal reports of this Department remain In print and will 
be forwarded when requested, upon receipt of the price set against each Part and bound 
volume. 

age 6 c); in* Labor and Industrial 
Chronology for 1904 (postage 5 c). 

1900. Bound in cloth, postage 20 cents. 
Contains, I. Industrial Education of Work- 
ing Girls (postage 5 c.) ; n. Cotton Manu- 
factures in Massachusetts and the Southern 
States (postage 6 c.) ; III. Old-age Pensions 
(postage 6 c.) ; lY. Industrial Opportunities 
not yet Utilized in Massachusetts (postage 
6 c.) ; V. Statistics of Manufactures : 1903- 
1904 (postage 5 c.) ; VI. Labor and Indus- 
trial Chronology (postage 6 c). 

Amtafla Beport on tbe MUMmUem 
or ]I»iiafk«tares. 

Publication begun in 1886, but all volumes 
previous to 1892 are now out erf print. Each 
volume contains comparisons, for identical 
establishments, between two or more years 
as to Capital Devoted to Production, Goods 
Made and Work Done, Stock and Materials 
Used, Persons Employed, Wages Paid, 
Time in Operation, and Proportion of Busi- 
ness Done. The Industrial Chronology 
which forms a Part of each report up to 
and including the year 1902 presents an In- 
dustrial Chronology by Towns and Indus- 
tries. Beginning with the year 1903, the 
Industrial Chronology is combined with 
that for Labor under the title of Labor and 
Industrial Chronology and forms a part of 
the Annual Beport on the Statistics of 
Labor. Beginning with the year 1904, the 
Annual Report on the Statistics of Manu- 
factures has been discontinued as a separate 
volume and now forms a part of the Report 
on Labor. 

The volumes now remaining in print are 
given below, the figures in parentheses in- 
dicating the amount of postage needed to 
secure them : 

189« (16 C.) ; 1898 (16 C.) ; 1894 (16 C.) ; 
1895 (16 C); 1896 (10 c.) ; 1897 (10 C.) ; 
1898 (16 c) t contains also a historical report 
on the Textile Industries; 1899 (10 c); 
1900 (10 c.) ; 1901 (10 c), contains also a 
five year comparison on Manufactures, 
1896-1900; 1909 (10 C); 1908 (10 c). 

8pe«iAl Beporto. 

A Manual of Distributive Co-operation ~ 
1886 (postage 6 c.). 

Reports of the Annual Convention of the 
National Association of Officials of Bureaus 
of Labor Statistics in America— 1902, 1903, 
1904, and 1906 (postage 6 cents each). 



J Beport OB tlio 8ft»ttsftles 
or Ii»l»or. 

1898. Bound in cloth, postage 16 cents. 
This report contains a special report on 
Unemployment, and Labor Chronology for 
the year 1896; this latter will be mailed 
separately for 6 cents. 

1890. Bound in cloth, postage 16 cents. 
Contains, I. Social and Industrial Changes 
in the County of Barnstable (postage 6 c.) ; 

II. Graded Weekly Wages, 1810-1891, second 
part (postage 10 c.) ; III. Labor Chronology 
for 1896 (postage 6 c). 

1897. Bound in cloth, postage 16 cents. 
Contains, I. Comparative Wages and Prices, 
1860-1897 (postage 6 c.) ; U. Graded Weekly 
Wages, 1810-1891, third part (postage 10 c.) ; 

III. Labor Chronology for 1897 (postage 
6 c.). 

1898. Bound in doth, postage 26 cents. 
Contains, I. Sunday Labor (postage 6 c.) ; 
II. Graded Weekly Wages, 1810-1891, fourth 
part (postage 16 c.) ; III. Labor Chronology 
for 1896 (postage 6c.). 

1899. Bound in cloth, postage 16 cents. 
Contains, I. Changes in Conducting Retail 
Trade in Boston Since 1874 (postage 6 c.) ; 
U. Labor Chronology for 1899 (postage 
10 c). 

1900. Bound in doth, postage 26 cents. 
Contains, I. Population of Massachusetts in 
1900; II. The Insurance of Workingmen 
(postage 10 c); III. Graded Prices, 1816- 
1891 (postage 16 c). 

1901. Bound in cloth, postage 16 cents. 
Contains, I. Labor Chronology for 1900 
(postage 6 c.) ; II. Labor Chronology for 
1901 (postage & c.) ; ni. Prices and Cost of 
Living, 1872-1902 (postage 6 c.) ; IV. Labor 
Laws (postage 6 c). 

1909. Bound in doth, postage 16 cents. 
Contains, I. Beport to the Legislature; II. 
Labor Chronology for 1902; III. Mercantile 
Wages and Salaries (postage 6 c.) ; IT. Sex 
in Industry (postage 6 c). 

1909. Bound in cloth, postage 16 cents. 
Contains, I. Race in Industry (postage 6 c.) ; 

II. Free Employment Offices in the United 
States and Foreign Countries (postage 6 c.) ; 

III. Social and Industrial Condition of the 
Negro in Massachusetts (postage 6 c.) ; IV. 
Labor and Industrial Chronology for 1908 
(postage 6 c.). 

1904« Bound in doth, postage 16 cents. 
Contains, I. Actual Weekly Earnings (post- 
age 6 c.) ; II. Causes of High Prices (post- 



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PUBLICATIONS OF THE 

BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF LABOR. 



tiAbar B Bile 11 m. 

Thesis Bui I*; Una contnln a large v&rictj 
of iDUsTCBt^ng Anii porting lit rtiMter oii tlie 
Social and Induatrlal Coiiilltluii o( ttK* Work- 
Ingmniii togetlier nltJi leading articlefl on 
lUe Condition of Emiiloymentp EarnlngBp 
etc* TUe fo Howl ng.num bora are the only 
ones now renuHnlug In print and will be 
forwfinlctl upon receipt of Ave cents eficli 
lo cover Lhc cost of posuige. 

If e, 14, M ay , 1000* ITree Pu btl e E ii i ■ 
ply J ment OniccB — Emploi'tneut and Unem. 
ploytnetit in ttud 1^00 1 and i^hoe ivntl Taper 
Industries — I^egi elation affecting Hours of 
LalKir — Q ua rterl j Kcv lew o t Employ me n t 
ftnd Enrnlugs: Ending April 30, iS^W-Sta- 
tlstlciil Abstracts. 

H ft, 44, f«<iir©mli«r, l#<ia- Tteyiew Of 
Employment and Earnings for six months 
ending OttoijerSl, 19(>^ — QnartcrJj Record 
©f Strikes — Glasfie^ Oe^snpicd lu Mafisaehu- 
fietu MaaufHcttireB — Labor Organliutloaa 
La MafiSiudmaettB. 

Ho. aft, JAitii«i7^ I»IH^ Eight- honr 
Dtty — Ucenaing of llarberB— Early Clos^ 
Ing and llalf-bwUday Lstws of Anstralfiaia 

— ludustriai StudieH, Froprletora — Palaces 
fortbe I'eople — Quftitcrly Itecordof^tritea. 

If «. to , m ar4*y, 1 004 . N a tlo oal Trade s 
AaicHTtflllOH — MasafliMiusctta-born Living 
IntKhur «tateB— industrial Bcttermente— A 
Partial HellgloUH Caiivasa of Hostcn— Cur. 
rent Conuncnt on Labof Qiieolions: Cbtld 
Labor— Bi-monthly Record of StrHst-s and 
Lockouts — Prices of C<a-taln Articles Of 
Foo<l In Toroulo, Canada,and Masaachuaelta 

— ludustriai Agreemeutft— Labor LegVsla- 
iiou In Other States and Foreign Conutrios 

— lieoenfc Legal Labor Declslona—yta He tl- 
cnl Abstracta. 

no* SI, afA7f to^-l. City Labor In 
Ma* Ba4.'lui setts — Review of Etuployniont 
and Eamlngfl for Si^ Months ending April 
80j 19&4— Average Betall Prlcea In 11 Cities 

— Bi niontlily Record of Strikea and Lock- 
on ta— Editorial, Rev, Jesse FLJouea — In* 
duBtrlal Agroemeots — Current Comment on 
Lttb<»r Queattons: Open ami Closed Shop— 
Labor Legislation in Otber Statea and 
Foreign Countries — licijcnt Legal Labor 
lieelslona — Excerpt* Rolatlug to Labor, In- 
dustrinl, Sociological, and General Matters 
of Public In tettst— Statistical AbBtraots. 

Mo, 39, #al7i %^0^* Ctdlil Labor In 
tliuUnltetl States and Maasacbunotts— Net 
Profltaof T^aboraud Capital — The Inherit 
ancc Tax — AbHence after Fay Day — Pay 
of Navy Yard Workmen- Labor Legisla- 
tion In MRssacbnBettfl for 1904 — Industrial 
Agreements — Current Comment on Labor 
Questions: Elght-boTir Worliiiiay— Eoc^^nt 
Legfti Labor iKM-islons — Exccrptii Relating 
to Labor, Induetnidj Sodologlcal.and Uen- 
cFal Matters of Public Interest- 9 fad atlcal 
A bstraetfl. 



Ho. sl» Peeemltfit-. 10O4» IneTeaBes 
in the Cost of Pi-oductlon-^ Review of Km. 
ployment and Earning for Six: Mentha 
ending Oetober ai, 1904 — Semljinnmil H&c- 
o?d of S trikea and Lockou U : End Ing Octo ber 
3li 1904 — Strike of Ck^tton Operatives In Fall 
RlvHr- Average Ectftll Prices, April and 
October, 1904-- A Vise nee afl^Jr J^ay Day,i^o. 
% — Current Comment on LaVmr Questions : 
Cooperation— Recent Legal Lalior Deci- 
sions — J uduBtrial Agreements — Excerpts 
Relating to Labor. InduatrlaU Sociological, 
and General Matters of Public Interest — 
Statistical Abatracta-Indexto Labor BuRh- 
tins of the year m^, Kob. 'a to 34* Inclusive, 
Ho. «fi. Mar ell, 19mit* WMge Earner 
II nd Education, The — Free Employment 
njiiees— Current Comment on Labor Quee 
tSons : Trade Schools ttud Manual Training 
i^choola— LoglsljUion Regulating and Fro* 
hi biting the Employment of Women and 
Children in tlie United States - Rnlletlns 
of Bnreatis of Labor— Recent Legal Labor 
t»eclsio n a — 1 ndu Btr ift? A greemetd s — Ex ^ 
ctnnits Relating to Labor, IndustriaJ, So- 
ciological, and General Matlera of Public 
Interest— Statliitical Abatraeis. 

Ho. SO, Ja«i«, leOfK. Tramps aud 
V agf ants . Con sua of l9Ct5 — T ho Loom Sy &^ 
toTu— Weekly Hay of Rest — VVages and 
Ilonra o f Labor o n Publ Sc W orks — T be (Jen- 
sua EnumeraiorB of 11W5 — Average Retail 
I*dces, October aod April — SemLiinnttal 
Record of Strikes and Lockouts : Six Months 
ending April 31), ItJfWS — Labor LeglaUitlon In 
Massatdiu setts for 1905— Curreid Coniinent 
ou Labor tjneatlons: ProDt Sharing- In. 
duEitrlal Agreements — Recent Legal Labor 
PeeSfilons- Eieerjvta RelatlOff to Labor, lo^ 
dufitrial^ Sociological, and GeueTal Mattera 
of Publ le I u terest — SUl 1 fll iea I A bstra cte. 

Ho* 40, MArch, l«oe. The taking of 
aCenaufi— TheTrue Itjislsof Potltieal Rep- 
ro&entatlou — The Restrlelion of Immlgrf*- 
tlon — Free Employment Oflii^es — Trade 
IT u ions: UnlUHl States and Foreign Coon- 
IricH— Wages Palil Employees In the Navy 
Yaitland Private Efttabllshmenis- Cnrrent 
Comment on Labor Que(*tlouij: Immigration 

— induiitrial Agreem en ta — Trade Union 
Notea— Recent Legal Labor Dodslona — 
Excerpts Relating to Labor, Indwatilal, 
Soclologk'Al, and General Matters of Public 
I ntereet — Statl stlcti 1 A b Btrat ta. 

Ho. 41, Mmj^ Idoo. Oceupailous of 
<i\i\ GraduatcB- The Distribution of 
Wealth — The I uberilancc Tax in tbc United 
suites- Five Yeara* Strikes in Maasaehn* 
Bctts- The Fall River Sliding Scale of 
^Vfjgea — WeTfare Work among the Cotton 
Mills of Lowell — Nationality of Luvreli 
Cotton . Tni 11 t >perati vos — C u rre at Ci> m men* 
on LalKir Quofitin&fr; Appreiitk^es- Aver- 
a^a Uetall Prices, April, 1!I04, linjft, and 1S<KJ 

— t!.eml-ftniHiiil Kenurfl of Sirlfeea and Loek* 
outa : Ending April 3ft, lfi06. ^ | 

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A FINE IS INCURRED IF THIS BOOK IS 
NOT RETURNED TO THE LIBRARY ON 
OR BEFORE THE LAST DATE STAMPED 

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